Macrophage infiltration and activation in metabolic tissues underlie obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. While inflammatory activation of resident hepatic macrophages potentiates insulin resistance, the functions of alternatively activated Kupffer cells in metabolic disease remain unknown. Here we show that in response to the Th2… (More)
Figure 2. PPARd Is Required for Expression of the Immune Phenotype of Alternative Macrophage Activation (A) Decreased expression of markers of alternative activation in IL-4-stimulated PPARd / BMDMs. Relative expression of alternative activation mRNAs was quantified by qRT-PCR. Retnla, resistin-like a; Mrc1, mannose receptor; Chi3l3, chitinase 3-like 3; Pdcd1lg2, programmed cell death 1 ligand 2. (B and C) PPARd is required for suppression of IL-6 (B) and IL-12 (C) production in alternatively activated BMDMs. (D) PPARd is required for the mitogenic response to IL-4 in BMDMs. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01.