Altered microstructure within social-cognitive brain networks during childhood in Williams syndrome.

@article{Haas2014AlteredMW,
  title={Altered microstructure within social-cognitive brain networks during childhood in Williams syndrome.},
  author={Brian W. Haas and Naama Barnea-Goraly and Kristen E. Sheau and Bun Yamagata and Shruti Ullas and Allan L. Reiss},
  journal={Cerebral cortex},
  year={2014},
  volume={24 10},
  pages={
          2796-806
        }
}
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion of ∼26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a distinctive pattern of social cognition. Accordingly, neuroimaging studies show that WS is associated with structural alterations of key brain regions involved in social cognition during adulthood. However, very little is currently known regarding the neuroanatomical structure of social cognitive brain networks during childhood in WS. This study… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Altered white matter microstructure is associated with social cognition and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome
TLDR
Compared to typically developing controls, 22q11DS participants showed significantly lower AD and RD in multiple white matter tracts, with effects of greatest magnitude for AD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus.
Aberrant White Matter Microstructure in Children with 16p11.2 Deletions
TLDR
It is shown that deletion carriers, compared with typically developing matched controls, have increased axial diffusivity (AD) in many major central white matter tracts, including the anterior corpus callosum as well as bilateral internal and external capsules.
Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex
TLDR
Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant executive neurocognitive differences.
White matter alterations in Williams syndrome related to behavioral and motor impairments
TLDR
Findings regarding changes in myelin genes and alterations in WM structure in WS suggest new targets for drug therapy aimed at improving conduction properties and altering brain‐activity synchronization in this disorder.
Autism and Williams syndrome: Dissimilar socio-cognitive profiles with similar patterns of abnormal gene expression in the blood
TLDR
A significant overlap is found between genes dysregulated in the blood of patients compared to neurotypical controls, with most of them being upregulated or, in some cases, downregulated.
Neonatal genetic epilepsies display convergent white matter microstructural abnormalities
TLDR
This finding suggests convergent abnormal corpus callosum microstructure in neonatal epilepsies with diverse suspected genetic causes and further study is needed to determine the specific nature, causes, and functional impact of seizure‐associated abnormal white matter in neonates, a potential pathogenic mechanism.
Dissociation of spatial memory systems in Williams syndrome
TLDR
The dissociation observed between these two spatial memory systems provides a coherent theoretical framework to characterize the spatial abilities of individuals with WS, and may lead to the development of new learning strategies based on their facilitated response learning abilities.
A behavioural and electrophysiological investigation of cognitive and executive dysfunction in older adults with Williams syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare developmental disorder accompanied by mild–moderate learning difficulties. The literature focusing on older adults with WS is limited, thus the thesis examined
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 132 REFERENCES
An Experiment of Nature: Brain Anatomy Parallels Cognition and Behavior in Williams Syndrome
TLDR
Findings point to specific neuroanatomical correlates for the unique topography of cognitive and behavioral features associated with this disorder.
Social Brain Development in Williams Syndrome: The Current Status and Directions for Future Research
TLDR
This article discusses how distinctive social behaviors in WS may be associated with alterations or delays in the cortical representation of faces, connectivity within the ventral stream, structure and function of the amygdala and how long- and short-range connections develop within the brain.
Preliminary evidence of abnormal white matter related to the fusiform gyrus in Williams syndrome: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study
TLDR
Results provide further evidence that the brain anatomy important for processing faces is abnormal inWilliams syndrome, as compared to controls.
Brain structural differences associated with the behavioural phenotype in children with Williams syndrome
Parieto-occipital grey matter abnormalities in children with Williams syndrome
Functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities of the hippocampal formation in Williams syndrome.
Williams syndrome (WS), caused by microdeletion of some 21 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, is characterized by dysmorphic features, mental retardation or learning difficulties, elastin arteriopathy, and
A genetic model for understanding higher order visual processing: functional interactions of the ventral visual stream in Williams syndrome.
TLDR
Examination of neural interactions of ventral stream areas in Williams syndrome indicates that abnormal upstream visual object processing may contribute to the complex cognitive/behavioral phenotype in WS and provide a systems-level characterization of genetically mediated abnormalities of Neural interactions.
Frontotemporal white-matter microstructural abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study
TLDR
Adolescents with CD have significant differences in the ‘connectivity’ and maturation of UF, and between-group differences in any measure within the control tracts.
Regional Brain Differences in Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume in Individuals with Williams Syndrome
TLDR
Examination of concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between Williams syndrome subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions.
...
...