Altered microbiome in chronic kidney disease: systemic effects of gut-derived uremic toxins.

@article{Lau2018AlteredMI,
  title={Altered microbiome in chronic kidney disease: systemic effects of gut-derived uremic toxins.},
  author={Wei Ling Lau and Javad Savoj and Michael B Nakata and Nosratola D. Vaziri},
  journal={Clinical science},
  year={2018},
  volume={132 5},
  pages={
          509-522
        }
}
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p-cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived… 

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...

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