To investigate the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on chemokine receptors and explore the potential mechanism of rhG-CSF inducing immune tolerance, ninety-seven donor and recipient pairs undergoing family-donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were studied. The results indicated that different donors showed great disparities in expression changes after mobilization. Multivariate analysis revealed that both HLA mismatching and CCR7 downregulation on donors' CD4+ T cells after mobilization were independent risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In contrast, CCR5 downregulation on CD4+ T cells was associated with reduced incidence of acute GVHD. In conclusion, rhG-CSF mobilization could lead to differential regulation of chemokine receptors expression on T cell subsets in different donors. Downregulation of CCR5 and upregulation of CCR7 expression on donor CD4+ T cells might protect recipients from acute GVHD. This finding may provide a promising new strategy for the prevention and treatment of acute GVHD.