Alterations in mammary gland development following neonatal exposure to estradiol, transforming growth factor alpha, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780.

@article{HilakiviClarke1997AlterationsIM,
  title={Alterations in mammary gland development following neonatal exposure to estradiol, transforming growth factor alpha, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780.},
  author={Leena Hilakivi-Clarke and Elizabeth L. Cho and Margarita J Raygada and Nicholas Kenney},
  journal={Journal of cellular physiology},
  year={1997},
  volume={170 3},
  pages={
          279-89
        }
}
High fetal/early postnatal levels of estrogen increase breast cancer risk, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Growth factors, such as transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), may participate as secondary modifiers in this process. We characterized a modulatory role of early postnatal exposure to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on the developing mammary gland morphology by treating intact female CD-1 mice with physiological doses of E2 (2-4 micrograms), human recombinant TGF alpha (4 micrograms), or… CONTINUE READING
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