Alterations in intestinal microbial flora and human disease

  title={Alterations in intestinal microbial flora and human disease},
  author={Mohamed O. Othman and ro Beatriz {\'A}lvarez Ag{\"u}ero and Henry C. Lin},
  journal={Current Opinion in Gastroenterology},
Purpose of review To highlight the evidence supporting the role of altered commensal gut flora in human disease. While the contribution of the indigenous gut microbial community is widely recognized, only recently has there been evidence pointing to indigenous flora in disease. Recent findings This review discusses recent evidence pointing to the role of altered commensal gut flora in such common conditions as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Recent studies document the… 

The impact of the microbiota on the pathogenesis of IBD: lessons from mouse infection models

The impact of pathogenic and commensal bacteria on IBD-like pathogenesis in mouse infection models is focused on and important recent developments are summarized.

Altered intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome

  • K. J. LeeJ. Tack
  • Biology, Medicine
    Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
  • 2010
In fecal samples, IBS patients had significantly higher numbers of Veillonella and Lactobacillus than healthy controls and showed significantly higher levels of acetic acid and propionic acid, suggesting altered intestinal microbiota contributes to the symptoms of IBS through increased levels of organic acids.

Gut microbiota in health and disease.

The advances in modeling and analysis of gut microbiota will further the authors' knowledge of their role in health and disease, allowing customization of existing and future therapeutic and prophylactic modalities.

Past, Present, and Future of Gastrointestinal Microbiota Research in Cats

The relationship between microbial community and host has profound effects on the health of animals. A balanced gastrointestinal (GI) microbial population provides nutritional and metabolic benefits

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The role of gut microbiota and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune liver diseases, metabolic liver disease such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosisits and its complications, and liver cancer was reviewed from the perspective of immune mechanism.

Gut--liver axis: the impact of gut microbiota on non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Gut Microbiota and Host Reaction in Liver Diseases

Intestinal dysbiosis and endotoxemia greatly affect the cirrhotics in relation to major complications and prognosis, and metagenomic approaches to Dysbiosis may be promising for the analysis of deranged host metabolism in NASH and cirrhosis.

Guteliver axis: The impact of gut microbiota on non alcoholic fatty liver disease

Modification of the gut microbiota may represent a new way to treat or prevent NAFLD, as complex metabolic diseases are the product of multiple perturbations under the influence of triggering factors such as gut microbiota and diet.

Intestinal flora imbalance results in altered bacterial translocation and liver function in rats with experimental cirrhosis

Gut flora imbalances in cir rhotic rats result in significant changes in BT and liver function in cirrhotic rats, and different probiotic treatments resulted in lower endotoxin levels than in the normal saline group.

Leaky Gut and Gut-Liver Axis in Liver Cirrhosis: Clinical Studies Update

Low abundance of 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria leads to decreased conversion of primary to secondary BAs, which may play an important role in the gut dysbiosis characterized by a proinflammatory and toxic gut microbiome inducing BT and endotoxemia.



Bacteria and irritable bowel syndrome: The evidence for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

A growing body of evidence links IBS to the presence of excessive bacteria in the small bowel, called bacterial overgrowth, and studies demonstrating the benefit of unabsorbed antibiotics suggest that reduction in gut flora is important.

Role of infection in irritable bowel syndrome

The role of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth in IBS is controversial, but broad-spectrum antibiotics do have a temporary benefit in some patients, and more acceptable long-term treatments altering gut flora are awaited with interest.

Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis.

Analysis of cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats and their relationship with BT suggests that the increase of intestinal aerobic bacteria in experimental cirrhosis is associated with translocation.

The Metabolic Activity of Fecal Microbiota from Healthy Individuals and Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The production of (potentially toxic) metabolites may play a role in the onset or chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease, because they were produced in higher amounts by microbiotas from these patients than bymicrobiota from healthy individuals.

Tolerance exists towards resident intestinal flora but is broken in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Tolerance selectively exists to intestinal flora from autologous but not heterologous intestine, and that tolerance is broken in intestinal inflammation is shown, which may be an important mechanism for the perpetuation of chronic IBD.

The bacteriology of biopsies differs between newly diagnosed, untreated, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients.

The observations made in this study should permit targeting of specific bacteriological abnormalities in investigations of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and provide targets for medical interventions.

The Use of Animal Models to Study Bacterial Translocation During Acute Pancreatitis

The literature review of animal models used to study bacterial translocation during acute pancreatitis demonstrates that many experimental techniques per se interfere with intestinal flora, mucosal barrier function, or immune response.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome.

The gastrointestinal and immune effects of SIBO provide a possible unifying framework for understanding frequent observations in IBS, including postprandial bloating and distension, altered motility, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal brain-gut interaction, autonomic dysfunction, and immune activation.

Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome.

Examination of colonoscopic biopsy specimens from patients meeting the Rome criteria for a clinical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome showed subgroups with normal and abnormal conventional histology, implicating the mucosal immune system in pathogenesis.

Intestinal transit and bacterial translocation in obstructive pancreatitis

Enteric bacteria within the gut and in adjacent MLNs increased as intestinal transit decreased after PBDL-induced pancreatic inflammation, and surprisingly, all parameters returned to control levels by 96 hr in spite of progression of Pancreatic inflammation.