The neotropical primate Callithrix jacchus infected with Junin virus presented an acute disease with hematological and neurological manifestations and died 17 to 24 days after infection. This picture is similar to that of human Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Blood coagulation and complement studies were performed in ten C jacchus animals inoculated with 10(3) TCID50 of Junin virus, the prototype pathogenic XJ strain. Four monkeys were used as normal controls. Infected monkeys and normal controls were bled to death on days 7, 14, 17, and 21. A progressive decrease in the number of platelets was found after day 7 of infection. On day 21, the last monkey had a value of 24,000/microliters. The levels of blood clotting factors did not change until day 17, when a shortened partial thromboplastin time activated with Kaolin (PTTK) (36 sec) and increased factors VIII (192.2%) and VII-X (266.6%) were found. On day 21, the PTTK was prolonged (50.7 sec) and factors II, V, and VIII, were decreased. Thrombin time was found prolonged from day 14 onward. Fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were increased on days 17 (754 mg/dl and 9.2 microliters/ml) and 21 (457 mg/dl and 29.4 micrograms/ml). No changes in the levels of alpha 2 macroglobulin were observed. Complement hemolytic levels were found to be low on day 7 (58.3 UCH50, increased on day 14 (165.1), and within normal range at the end of infection (107.2). C3 levels showed a similar pattern. The bone marrow was active and hypercellular, and the number and morphology of megakaryocytes were normal in all but one of infected animals. The results of blood clotting suggest a limited activation. The complement system presented a profile of activation followed by a rebound phenomenon. The activation of complement appeared ten days before the alteration of the clotting system was evident.