Alteration in inflammatory mediators in seriously eye-injured war veterans, long-term after sulfur mustard exposure.

  title={Alteration in inflammatory mediators in seriously eye-injured war veterans, long-term after sulfur mustard exposure.},
  author={Hassan Ghasemi and Mohammad Ali Javadi and Sussan Kaboudanian Ardestani and Mahmoud Mahmoudi and Shahryar Pourfarzam and Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi and Mohammad Ebrahim Yarmohammadi and A Baradaran-rafii and Khosrow Jadidi and Shamsa Shariatpanahi and Maryam Rastin and Fatemeh Heidary and Maliheh Safavi and Ensie sadat Mirsharif and Zahra Nasiri and Tooba Ghazanfari},
  journal={International immunopharmacology},
BACKGROUND Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure produces extensive systemic and ocular adverse effects on the victims. One of the most important effects is immunological insults that can lead to other organ damages, including the eyes. METHODS In this descriptive study, 128 SM-exposed veterans with severe eye injury were compared with 31 healthy controls. Tear levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL1Ra, IL-6, TNF-α, granulocyte-macrophage… 
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Therapeutic measures for sulfur mustard-induced ocular injury.
This review focuses on treatment experience carried out in humans and studied in animal models, for both SM-induced ocular acute injury and late pathology, and investigates the potential of additional pharmacological and biological treatments or advanced cellular and molecular biology methods to serve as novel therapeutic measures and techniques for this complicated ocular injury.
Occupational Exposures and Environmental Health Hazards of Military Personnel
It is indicated that only studies which analyzed epidemiological and molecular biomarkers in both exposed and control groups would provide evidence-based conclusions on exposure and disease risk in military personnel.


Long-term ocular consequences of sulfur mustard in seriously eye-injured war veterans
The more severe the initial exposure, percentage of disability, and duration of ocular involvement, the higher the likelihood of mustard gas keratopathy.
Evaluation of the tear and serum levels of IL-8 in sulfur mustard intoxicated patients 20 years after exposure
Tear IL-8 secretion was significantly inhibited in the unexposed controls with ocular surface abnormalities, while these inhibitory responses were not encountered in SM-exposed cases with ophthalmic surface abnormalities.
Ocular injuries following sulfur mustard exposure--pathological mechanism and potential therapy.
It is suggested that the chronic inflammation and prolonged impairment of corneal innervation are playing a role in the pathogenesis of the delayed LSCD following SM exposure by creating a pathological microenvironment to limbal epithelial stem cells, thus, leading to their slow death and to a second cascade of pathological events eventually resulting in severe long-term injuries.
Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-α in sulfur mustard-induced skin lesion; effect of topical iodine
The involvement of TNF-α in SM-induced skin toxicity was confirmed by reduction of 49 and 30% in ear edema following administration of 1 and 2 μg anti-TNF-β antibodies and the effect of iodine on activated peritoneal mouse neutrophil elicited a concentration-dependent reduction in the oxidative burst of activated neutrophils.
Progression of ocular sulfur mustard injury: development of a model system
Molecular, histological, ultrastructural, and clinical consequences of rabbit ocular SM injury are reported, which can be used to assess T β4 efficacy, including timepoints at which Tβ4 will be assessed for therapeutic utility.
Comparison of early and late toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans.
Late toxic effects of sulfur mustard were most commonly found in lungs, skin and eyes, and natural killer cells were significantly lower 16 to 20 years after intoxication.
Ocular injury by mustard gas.
In light of the ever-present threat of mustard chemical warfare against military and civilians, physicians worldwide should be aware of its grave effects and know how to care for its victims.
Review Article: Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard
Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK) is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form.
Long Term Ocular Effects of Mustard Gas Poisoning: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iraqi Kurdish Civilians
The investigation findings suggest that the need of Iraqi Kurdish chemical warfare victims with moderate to severe ophthalmologic complications for the provision of healthcare and follow-up is urgent.
Long‐term complications of sulphur mustard poisoning in severely intoxicated Iranian veterans
Although late complications of SM poisoning in the skin, eyes, and respiratory system are mainly due to its direct toxic effects, the neuromuscular, haematological and immunological complications are probably the result of systemic toxicity.