Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime

  title={Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime},
  author={Carole To{\"i}go and Jean-michel Gaillard and Anne Loison},
Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus… CONTINUE READING
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