The role of α-cells in islet function and glucose homeostasis in health and type 2 diabetes.
- Medicine, BiologyJournal of molecular biology
The Role of Glucagon in Glycemic Variability in Type 1 Diabetes: A Narrative Review
- MedicineDiabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy
There is growing evidences to illustrate the contribution of glucagon secretion to the gly glucose variability in patients with T1DM, which may promote the development of new treatment strategies aiming to mitigate glycemic variability associated with aberrant glucagon gland secretion.
Pancreatic alpha-cell mass in the early-onset and advanced stage of a mouse model of experimental autoimmune diabetes
- Biology, MedicineScientific Reports
The findings suggest that pancreatic alpha-cell renewal mechanisms are boosted during the natural course of EAD, possibly as an attempt to maintain the alpha- cell population and/or to increase beta-cell regeneration viaalpha-cell transdifferentiation.
Vitamin D binding protein/GC‐globulin: a novel regulator of alpha cell function and glucagon secretion
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of physiology
Recent work reveals that loss of DBP leads to smaller and hyperplastic alpha cells, which secrete less glucagon in response to low glucose concentration, despite vitamin D sufficiency, as well as changes in glucagon granule distribution.
Mini‐review: Glucagon responses in type 1 diabetes – a matter of complexity
- Medicine, BiologyPhysiological reports
Current data suggest that in type 1 diabetes the absence of glucagon secretion after hypoglycemia is irreversible, since other stimuli, including administration of amino acids, insulin withdrawal, lipopolysaccharide exposure and exercise lead to substantial glucagon responses though attenuated compared to nondiabetic individuals in head‐to‐head studies.
Heparanase and Type 1 Diabetes.
- Biology, MedicineAdvances in experimental medicine and biology
Treatment of NOD mice with the heparanase inhibitor and HS replacer, PI-88, significantly reduced T1D incidence by 50%, impaired the development of insulitis and preserved beta cell HS, which identified he paranase as a novel destructive tool in T2D, distinct from the conventional cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms of autoreactive T cells.
Endocrine Pancreas Development and Dysfunction Through the Lens of Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing
- Biology, MedicineFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Recent advances in the understanding of endocrine pancreas development and function from scRNA-Seq studies on developing and adult pancrea and human endocrine differentiation models are summarized.
Sodium, Glucose and Dysregulated Glucagon Secretion: The Potential of Sodium Glucose Transporters
- Biology, MedicineFrontiers in Pharmacology
Recent advances in understanding of how SGLTs are involved in the regulation of glucagon secretion suggest that SGLT1 could be a promising, yet highly underappreciated drug target to restore alpha cell function and improve treatment of both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
- Medicine, BiologyPediatric Drugs
Dehydration, hyperglycemia, and ketoacidosis are the hallmarks of this condition and the potential for some technical and pharmacologic advances in the management of T1D to increase DKA events must be recognized.
Islet sympathetic innervation and islet neuropathology in patients with type 1 diabetes
- Biology, MedicineScientific reports
The close approximation of TH axons at islet α-cells supports a model for sympathetic efferent neurons directly regulating glucagon secretion in type 1 diabetes, andSympathetic islet innervation and intrinsic adrenergic signaling pathways could be novel targets for improving glucagons secretion in T1D.
SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES
Glucagon and Type 2 Diabetes: the Return of the Alpha Cell
- Medicine, BiologyCurrent Diabetes Reports
This review focuses on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP and potential advantages and limitations of suppressing glucagon glands or antagonizing the glucagon receptor in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Physiology of the pancreatic alpha-cell and glucagon secretion: role in glucose homeostasis and diabetes.
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of endocrinology
A focus in this review has been the multiple control levels that modulate glucagon secretion from glucose and nutrients to paracrine and neural inputs and the glucagon actions on glycaemia and energy metabolism.
Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover.
- Medicine, BiologyThe Journal of clinical investigation
It is concluded that glucose-responsive β cells normally regulate juxtaposed α cells and that without intraislet insulin, unregulated α cells hypersecrete glucagon, which directly causes the symptoms of diabetes, indicating that glucagon suppression or inactivation may provide therapeutic advantages over insulin monotherapy.
β-Cell Glucose Sensitivity Is Linked to Insulin/Glucagon Bihormonal Cells in Nondiabetic Humans.
- Medicine, BiologyThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
The data suggest that poor β-cell glucose sensitivity is linked to islet transdifferentiation, possibly from α cells to β cells, in an attempt to cope with higher demands for insulin secretion.
Regulation of calcium in pancreatic α- and β-cells in health and disease
- Biology, MedicineCell calcium
Glucose regulation of glucagon secretion independent of B cell activity.
- Medicine, BiologyMetabolism: clinical and experimental
The Glucagonostatic and Insulinotropic Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Contribute Equally to Its Glucose-Lowering Action
- Medicine, BiologyDiabetes
It is concluded that insulin stimulation (day 4) and glucagon inhibition (day 3) contribute equally to the effect of GLP-1 on glucose turnover in patients with type 2 diabetes, and these changes explain the glucose-lowering effect ofglucagon-1 (day 5 vs. day 1).
Role of Endogenous GLP-1 and GIP in Beta Cell Compensatory Responses to Insulin Resistance and Cellular Stress
- Biology, MedicinePloS one
Observations cannot be explained by simple changes in circulating incretin concentrations, suggesting that intra-islet GLP-1 and GIP make a significant contribution to islet adaptation, particularly expansion of beta cell mass and compensatory islet compensation to hydrocortisone and insulin resistance.
Glucose regulation of glucagon secretion.
- Medicine, BiologyDiabetes research and clinical practice
Glucagon Receptor Knockout Prevents Insulin-Deficient Type 1 Diabetes in Mice
- Medicine, BiologyDiabetes
It is concluded that blocking glucagon action prevents the deadly metabolic and clinical derangements of type 1 diabetic mice.