Almost Equal: the Method of Adequality from Diophantus to Fermat and Beyond

@article{Katz2013AlmostET,
  title={Almost Equal: the Method of Adequality from Diophantus to Fermat and Beyond},
  author={Mikhail G. Katz and David M. Schaps and Steven Shnider},
  journal={Perspectives on Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={21},
  pages={283-324}
}
We analyze some of the main approaches in the literature to the method of ‘adequality’ with which Fermat approached the problems of the calculus, as well as its source in the παρισότης of Diophantus, and propose a novel reading thereof. Adequality is a crucial step in Fermat's method of finding maxima, minima, tangents, and solving other problems that a modern mathematician would solve using infinitesimal calculus. The method is presented in a series of short articles in Fermat's collected… 

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