Allozyme markers to help define the South American origins of Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) established in New Zealand for biological control of Argentine stem weevil.

Abstract

The thelytokous parasitoid, Microctonus hyperodae Loan, was collected from eight South American locations and introduced to New Zealand in 1991 for biological control of Argentine stem weevil, Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Parasitoids from each population were released in equal numbers at each New Zealand site to give them the same opportunities to establish. Population markers have been sought to identify the South American geographic populations that have become most successful in New Zealand. These would assist in determining the importance of concepts such as climate matching and host-parasitoid coevolution to the establishment of natural enemies in new regions for biological control. Vertical polyacrylamide electrophoresis was used to survey 16 enzymes and ten calcium binding proteins, and this paper reports variation at three putative loci. Malate dehydrogenase, a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase isozyme and a calcium binding protein exhibited clear genetic variation, each with two alleles. All M. hyperodae isofemale lines from east of the Andes mountains shared one genotype, all but one from west of the Andes shared another, while a population from within the Andes contained both genotypes. This variation was highly congruent with previously described morphometric variation. At two loci, the maintenance of heterozygotes, and the absence of homozygotes, within isofemale lines suggested M. hyperodae thelytoky is apomictic.

Cite this paper

@article{Iline2004AllozymeMT, title={Allozyme markers to help define the South American origins of Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) established in New Zealand for biological control of Argentine stem weevil.}, author={Ilia I. Iline and Craig B. Phillips}, journal={Bulletin of entomological research}, year={2004}, volume={94 3}, pages={229-34} }