UNLABELLED The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow in the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 44 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which was implemented MSC transplantation, 40 patients with UC who received standard therapy with mesalazane (salofalka) 4-6 g/day and corticosteroids (prednisone)--1-2 mg/kg, azathioprine--1.5 mg/kg methotrexate 20-50 mg/m2, and 12 patients who underwent induction and maintenance of infliximab therapy. 2-3 days prior to the induction of MSCs abolish immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids reduced to 15-20 mg/day dose of aminosalicylates was left at 2.0 g/day. To quantify the results using the average values of indices of Rahmilevich clinical activity, indices of endoscopic and histological activity scales Mayo and Gebs. The patients were observed for 24 months after transplantation. Were studied parameters of the humoral immune status (immunoglobulin A, G, M, autologous antibody), cytokine profile. Bone marrow cells were obtained from the donor's sternum or the iliac crest. By culturing the end of 5 to 6 weeks received a population of allogeneic donor's MSCs in the amount of (1.5-2) x 10(8) cells needed for transplant patient. Culture of MSCs injected in the drip i/v, single dose. RESULTS In 34 (72.7%) patients with UC after the induction of MSCs was statistically significant compared with the group of patients treated with drugs only 5-aminosalicylic acid and corticosteroids, reducing the clinical and morphological indices of inflammatory activity. In 12 patients with UC include MSCs in the treatment program did not have a therapeutic effect. Application of MSC allowed to cancel corticosteroids in most patients with hormone-dependent and steroid resistance forms of UC, and in 7 to reduce the dose of prednisolone to 5 mg/day, limiting the use of drugs 5-ASA. According to the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of combined therapy with MSCs comparable to infliximab therapy. CONCLUSION The use of MSCs can be evaluated as a new strategic direction for therapy UC. MSC, introduced in I/O, have powerful immunomodulatory effects, reduce the activity of autoimmune inflammation and stimulate the reparative process in the intestinal mucosa, thereby increasing the duration of remission, reduces risk of recurrence of disease, reduces the frequency of hospitalizations.