All progestins are not created equal

@article{Stanczyk2003AllPA,
  title={All progestins are not created equal},
  author={Frank Z. Stanczyk},
  journal={Steroids},
  year={2003},
  volume={68},
  pages={879-890}
}
  • F. Stanczyk
  • Published 1 November 2003
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Steroids
A variety of progestins are available for therapeutic use. It is convenient to classify them into those related in chemical structure to progesterone or testosterone. Progestins related to progesterone can be subdivided into pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes, whereas those related to testosterone can be subdivided into those with and without a 17-ethinyl group. 17-Ethinylated progestins consist of the families of norethindrone (estranes) and levonorgestrel (13-ethylgonanes). Progestins administered… 
Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and serum concentrations of progestins used in contraception.
TLDR
It is shown that there is a paucity of research on most of these topics for most progestins, and major impediments to clear conclusions are a lack of standardized methodologies, comparisons between non-parallel clinical studies and variability of data on serum concentrations between and within studies.
The challenge presented by progestins in ecotoxicological research: a critical review.
TLDR
The ability to impair female reproduction at very low concentrations makes the progestins arguably the most important pharmaceutical group of concern after ethinylestradiol.
Progestogens used in postmenopausal hormone therapy: differences in their pharmacological properties, intracellular actions, and clinical effects.
TLDR
Differences in chemical structure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, affinity, potency, and efficacy via steroid receptors, intracellular action, and biological and clinical effects confirm the absence of a class effect of progestogens.
The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.
TLDR
The role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood is reported.
Progestogens and brain: an update.
TLDR
Molecular and cellular characterization of the signaling properties of synthetic progestins in brain cells is hoped to lead to a better clinical utilization of the available compounds, as well as to new concepts in the engineering of new molecules.
Not All Progestins are Created Equally: Considering Unique Progestins Individually in Psychobehavioral Research
Progestins (i.e., synthetic progesterone) used in hormonal contraceptives (HCs) have been developed to mimic endogenous progesterone to inhibit ovulation and prevent pregnancy. Although the
Progestins Related to Progesterone and Testosterone Elicit Divergent Human Endometrial Transcriptomes and Biofunctions
TLDR
Different mechanisms of action for different progestins are suggested, with progestin-specific altered signatures when combined with E2 suggested, and further investigation is warranted for a personalized approach in different gynecologic disorders, for contraception, and minimizing side effects associated with their use.
The pharmacodynamics and safety of progesterone.
  • P. Piette
  • Medicine
    Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • 2020
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
Assessment of the potency of orally administered progestins in women.
TLDR
Values agree with published data obtained with the use of different methods (delay of menstruation in premenopausal women, endometrial histologic features of estrogen-primed, ovariectomized women).
Progestational and androgenic receptor binding affinities and in vivo activities of norgestimate and other progestins.
TLDR
Evidence of the selectivity of norgestimate based on minimal androgenicity is provided, indicating an improvement over other progestins used in oral contraceptives.
Progestins and Antiprogestins in Clinical Practice
TLDR
Progestins in Hormonal Replacement Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk, Breast Diseases, andTherapeutic Use of Progestins: Practical Recommendations, metabolic effects of Progesterone, and clinical applications.
Drospirenone: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of a unique progestogen.
TLDR
Based on the biochemical and pharmacodynamic data, drospirenone appears to be a viable alternative to the currently available progestogens.
Use of the name "Progestin".
A 1-year pharmacokinetic investigation of a novel oral contraceptive containing drospirenone in healthy female volunteers
TLDR
In conclusion, drospirenone was absorbed at a similar rate as other synthetic progestogens contained in various oral contraceptives, as indicated by similar tmax values.
...
1
2
3
4
...