Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.

  title={Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.},
  author={David S. Senchina and Justus E. Hallam and Marian L. Kohut and Norah A Nguyen and M. Ann D. N. Perera},
  journal={Exercise immunology review},
Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and its isomers, theobromine and paraxanthine; (c) ginger alkaloids including gingerols and shogaol; and (d) ephedra… CONTINUE READING
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