Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings

@article{Cook2015AlgalTI,
  title={Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings},
  author={Peter F Cook and Colleen Reichmuth and Andrew A. Rouse and Laura A. Libby and Sophie E. Dennison and Owen T. Carmichael and Kris T. Kruse-Elliott and Josh Bloom and Baljeet Singh and Vanessa A. Fravel and Lorraine Barbosa and Jim J. Stuppino and William Van Bonn and Frances M D Gulland and Charan Ranganath},
  journal={Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={350},
  pages={1545 - 1547}
}
Red tides make dinner hard to find Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by marine algae. When present in large amounts, it is harmful to marine organisms and to humans. Cook et al. tested California sea lions being treated at a marine mammal rescue facility. Animals that had evidence of exposure to DA had lesions in their hippocampus and displayed reduced performance on spatial memory tasks. Because such tasks are essential to foraging in a marine environment, increasing exposure to DA may… Expand
Natural exposure to domoic acid causes behavioral perseveration in Wild Sea lions: Neural underpinnings and diagnostic application.
TLDR
Delayed habituation and enhanced dishabituation following domoic acid exposure indicate a clinically relevant and potentially maladaptive behavioral pattern of perseveration in California sea lions. Expand
Neurological deficits in stranded California sea lions
TLDR
The major challenges in diagnosing domoic acid toxicosis are that historical exposure cannot be accurately determined in wild animals and the environmental prevalence of the toxin does not always follow predictable patterns. Expand
Chronic low-level exposure to the common seafood toxin domoic acid causes cognitive deficits in mice.
TLDR
Chronic low-level DA exposure caused significant spatial learning impairment and hyperactivity after 25 weeks of exposure in the absence of visible histopathological lesions in hippocampal regions of the brain, suggesting deficits could potentially be managed through cessation of exposure if they also occur in human seafood consumers. Expand
Neurological impacts of prolonged asymptomatic exposure to the marine neurotoxin domoic acid
TLDR
It is found that prolonged domoic acid exposure significantly affected gene transcription and impaired mitochondrial function in zebrafish brains, and altered neuronal network activity and connectivity in mouse brain slice cultures, all in the absence of overt symptoms, gross histopathology, and neuron death/injury. Expand
Exposure to domoic acid is an ecological driver of cardiac disease in southern sea otters✰.
TLDR
This study is the first to identify that DA exposure affects the risk of cardiomyopathy more substantially in prime-age adults than aged adults, suggesting that persistent DA exposure will likely impact long-term viability of this threatened species. Expand
What California sea lions exposed to domoic acid might teach us about autism: lessons for predictive and preventive medicine
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly byExpand
Chronic, Low-Level Oral Exposure to Marine Toxin, Domoic Acid, Alters Whole Brain Morphometry in Nonhuman Primates
TLDR
Increases in DA-related tremors were negatively correlated with fractional anisotropy, a measure of structural integrity, in the internal capsule, fornix, pons, and corpus callosum, and brain concentrations of lactate, a neurochemical closely linked with astrocytes, were weakly, but positively associated with tremors. Expand
Repeated low level domoic acid exposure increases CA1 VGluT1 levels, but not bouton density, VGluT2 or VGAT levels in the hippocampus of adult mice.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that repeated exposure to low levels of DA leads to subtle changes in VGluT1 expression within CA1 excitatory boutons, which may alter glutamatergic transmission in CA1 and disrupt behaviors dependent on spatial memory. Expand
Year-round algal toxin exposure in free-ranging sea lions
TLDR
Toxins detected in winter scats confirm that US West Coast marine mammals are exposed to domoic acid and saxitoxin through their prey outside of the expected algal bloom seasons. Expand
Presence and persistence of the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, domoic acid, in octopus and cuttlefish brains.
TLDR
This study shows that two highly-developed invertebrate species, with a complex central nervous system, where glutamatergic transmission is involved in vertebrate-like long-term potentiation (LTP), have the ability of retaining and possibly tolerating chronic exposure to DA, a potent neurotoxin usually acting at AMPA/kainate-like receptors. Expand
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There was no relationship between severity of brain damage and behavioral patterns for chronic neurologic cases, but sea lions with chronic neurologics changes had a poor prognosis for survival following release. Expand
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Over 100 free-ranging adult California sea lions and one Northern fur seal were intoxicated by domoic acid during three harmful algal blooms between 1998 and 2000 in central and northern California coastal waters, revealing gross and histologic findings that were distinctive and aided in diagnosis. Expand
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TLDR
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