Alexander Butlerov and the Professionalization of Science in Russia

@article{Brooks1998AlexanderBA,
  title={Alexander Butlerov and the Professionalization of Science in Russia},
  author={Nathan M. Brooks},
  journal={The Russian Review},
  year={1998},
  volume={57},
  pages={10-24}
}
7lIhe Great Reform Era during the reign of Alexander 11 (1855-81) produced significant changes throughout Russian society, including the emancipation of the serfs, military reforms, judicial reforms, and educational reforms. One important impact of these and other reforms was the stimulus they gave to the growth of professions and professional specialists in the years before 1917. While early studies of professions focused on the United States and England, scholars are devoting more attention… 
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References

The University of Kazan-Provincial Cradle of Russian Organic Chemistry: Part I. Nikolai Zinin and the Butlerov School
Contributions of the University of Kazan and Russians to the science of modern organic chemistry.