Regular alcohol consumption has multiple effects on lipid metabolism and basically all lipid fractions in the blood are affected by alcohol. The effects depend on the dose and the regularity of intake as well as the liver function. Moderate amounts of alcohol lead to an increase in HDL-cholesterol as well as in some populations to a lowering in the Lp(a) concentration. High consumption levels lead to a decline in most lipoprotein fractions due to hepatopathy. Due to the suppression of lipid oxidation moderate alcohol consumption has to be regarded as a risk factor for obesity and weight gain. The non-oxidized lipid calories are deposited preferentially in the abdominal area. These effects can be compensated by a reduction of fat intake in a ratio of at least 1:1 to the amount of the ingested calories.