Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases: where do we stand today?

  title={Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases: where do we stand today?},
  author={Arthur L. Klatsky},
  journal={Journal of internal medicine},
  volume={278 3},
For centuries, multiple medical risks of heavy alcohol drinking have been evident with simultaneous awareness of a less harmful or sensible drinking limit. The increased risks of heavy drinking, defined as three or more standard-sized drinks per day, are both cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV. The CV risks include the following: (i) alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM), (ii) systemic hypertension, (iii) atrial arrhythmias, (iv) haemorrhagic stroke and, probably, ischaemic stroke. By contrast, modern… CONTINUE READING