Albania and the Middle East

  title={Albania and the Middle East},
  author={Michael B. Bishku},
  journal={Mediterranean Quarterly},
  pages={103 - 81}
This essay reviews and analyzes Albania's connections with the Middle East since the era of Enver Hoxha's rule, when ideology was a strong factor in international relations. Since the end of the Cold War, Albania has been most interested in developing political, economic, and cultural ties, especially with Turkey, Israel, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf region. Through its modern history, Albania has been a good example of a politically and economically weak state exercising a fairly… 

Bosnia and the Middle East: Current Political, Economic and Cultural Ties

Abstract This article will review and analyze Bosnia’s political, economic and cultural ties with the Middle East, most especially Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Israel, as well as the evolution of

Law Enforcement, Education Accessibility and The Kanun

This study exposes the violation of Articles One through Five in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights compiled in Paris on December 10th, 1948 by the people of Albania, the lack of law



Turkish-Bulgarian Relations: From Conflict and Distrust to Cooperation over Minority Issues and International Politics

Turkish-Bulgarian relations since the latter part of the nineteenth century and throughout most of the twentieth have been shaped by political changes in the Balkans, affected in large part by the

A Political History of Bektashism in Albania

Abstract Heterodox mystics and heretics of any kind become sometimes dangerous and other times reliable, depending on political situations, as was the case with the Bektashis. The system of beliefs

Israel and the Balkan States

The demise of the Soviet Union constituted a turning point in the diplomatic relations between Israel and the states of the Balkan peninsula. Like all states of the former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,

Covert Action in the Cold War: US Policy, Intelligence and CIA Operations

Born out of the ashes of World War II, the covert action arm of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created to counter the challenge posed by the Soviet Union and its allies and bolster