Alarm calls as costly signals of antipredator vigilance: the watchful babbler game

@article{Bergstrom2001AlarmCA,
  title={Alarm calls as costly signals of antipredator vigilance: the watchful babbler game},
  author={Carl T. Bergstrom and Michael Lachmann},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2001},
  volume={61},
  pages={535-543}
}
Alarm-calling behaviour is common in many species that suffer from predation. While kin selection or reciprocal altruism are typically invoked to explain such behaviours, several authors have conjectured that some alarm calls may instead be costly signals sent by prey to inform approaching predators that they have been detected. We develop a general game-theoretical model, the watchful babbler game, in which prey signal awareness to predators. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for… 

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