Ajudazols, new inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport from Chondromyces crocatus. Production, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action.

@article{Kunze2004AjudazolsNI,
  title={Ajudazols, new inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport from Chondromyces crocatus. Production, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action.},
  author={Brigitte Kunze and Rolf Jansen and Gerhard Höfle and Hans Prof Dr Reichenbach},
  journal={The Journal of antibiotics},
  year={2004},
  volume={57 2},
  pages={
          151-5
        }
}
groups of secondary metabolites, which are simultaneously produced by C. crocatus. Crocacin A, the main representative of the at first isolated group, is a complex N-acyl dipeptide, which effectively inhibits the growth of yeasts and fungi, caused by blocking the electron flow within the cytochrome bc1 segment (complex III) of the eukaryotic respiratory chain1,2). Another group, the chondramides A-D3,4) are new cyclo-depsipeptides structurally related to the sponge metabolite jaspamide… 
Structure and Biosynthesis of Crocagins: Polycyclic Posttranslationally Modified Ribosomal Peptides from Chondromyces crocatus.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that crocagin A binds to the carbon storage regulator protein CsrA, thereby inhibiting the ability of CSRA to bind to its cognate RNA target.
An Unusual Thioesterase Promotes Isochromanone Ring Formation in Ajudazol Biosynthesis
TLDR
Detailed phylogenetic and sequence analysis is presented, coupled with experiments both in vitro and in vivo, that suggest that this ajudazol TE promotes formation of the isochromanone ring, a novel reaction for this type of domain.
Biosynthesis of thuggacins in myxobacteria: comparative cluster analysis reveals basis for natural product structural diversity.
TLDR
A comparative analysis of the biosynthetic gene clusters in these strains reveals the mechanistic basis for this architectural diversity and inactivation of the monooxygenase gene in C. crocatus resulted in production of both mono- and di-deshydroxy thuggacin derivatives, providing direct evidence for the role of this enzyme in the pathway.
Thuggacins, macrolide antibiotics active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: isolation from myxobacteria, structure elucidation, conformation analysis and biosynthesis.
TLDR
Preliminary studies on the mechanism of action indicate inhibition of the cellular electron-transport chain in thuggacin 1, which proved to be active against clinical isolates and reference strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Concerted action of P450 plus helper protein to form the amino-hydroxy-piperidone moiety of the potent protease inhibitor crocapeptin.
TLDR
The crocapeptins are described here as cyclic depsipeptides, isolated from cultures of the myxobacterium Chondromyces crocatus, containing the characteristic amino-hydroxy-piperidone (Ahp)-heterocycle, which proved to be serine protease inhibitors.
Genome Analysis of the Fruiting Body-Forming Myxobacterium Chondromyces crocatus Reveals High Potential for Natural Product Biosynthesis
TLDR
Analysis revealed an enlarged set of tRNA genes, along with reduced pressure on preferred codon usage compared to that of other bacterial genomes, and extensive genetic information duplication and broad application of eukaryotic-type signal transduction systems in this 11.3-Mbp prokaryotic genome.
Synthesis of the eastern portion of ajudazol a based on Stille coupling and double acetylene carbocupration.
[structure: see text] A strategy for the synthesis of ajudazol A, an unusual, pharmacologically active metabolite from myxobacteria, based on the Stille cross-coupling of a 2-stannyl-oxazole with a
Myxobacterial secondary metabolites: bioactivities and modes-of-action.
TLDR
The myxobacteria, long a source of fascination due to their sophisticated, social lifestyles, are now increasingly recognized as multi-producers of promising natural products.
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TLDR
In beef heart submitochondrial particles, crocacin blocked the electron transport within the bc1-segment (complex III) and caused a red shift in the reduced spectrum of cytochrome b with a maximum at 569 nm.
Chondramides A~D, New Antifungal and Cytostatic Depsipeptides from Chondromyces crocatus(Myxobacteria)Production, Physico-chemical and Biological Properties
TLDR
Novel depsipeptides, named chondramides were produced at levels up to 4.3 mg/liter by several myxobacteria of the genus Chondromyces and showed high cy to static activity against cultivated human and animal cells.
Antibiotics from Gliding Bacteria, LXX Chondramides A–D, New Cytostatic and Antifungal Cyclodepsipeptides from Chondromyces crocatus (Myxobacteria): Isolation and Structure Elucidation
As a result of the extension of our screening to strains of Chondromyces four new antifungal and highly cytostatic depsipeptides were isolated, the chondramides A (1) – D (4). Their macrocyclic
The Crocacins, Novel Antifungal and Cytotoxic Antibiotics from Chondromyces crocatus and Chondromyces pediculatus (Myxobacteria): Isolation and Structure Elucidation
Four novel antifungal and highly cytotoxic metabolites, the crocacins A–D (1–4), were isolated in our screening of the myxobacterial genus Chondromyces from strains of C. crocatus and C. pediculatus.
Phenoxan, a new oxazole-pyrone from myxobacteria: production, antimicrobial activity and its inhibition of the electron transport in complex I of the respiratory chain.
TLDR
The production of phenoxan is reported on, its antimicrobial activity, and on experiments with beef heart submitochondrial particles showing that phenxan is a powerful inhibitor of the eukaryotic respiratory chain at the site of complex I, i.e., NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase.
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TLDR
The chondramides appear to have antiproliferative activity against carcinoma cell lines by targeting the actin cytoskeleton, and, similar to jasplakinolide, are produced in large amounts by fermentation.
The myxalamids, new antibiotics from Myxococcus xanthus (Myxobacterales). I. Production, physico-chemical and biological properties, and mechanism of action.
TLDR
From the cell mass and culture supernatant of Myxococcus xanthus strain Mx X12 an antibiotic activity against yeasts, molds and some Gram-positive bacteria could be extracted and the main component was shown to block in beef heart submitochondrial particles the respiratory chain at the site of complex I.
Chondrochloren A and B, New β-Amino Styrenes from Chondromyces crocatus (Myxobacteria)
In a screening for biologically active metabolites of the genus Chondromyces, two novel metabolites, chondrochloren A (1) and B (2), were isolated from several strains of C. crocatus. Compounds 1 and
The Ajudazols A and B, Novel Isochromanones fromChondromyces crocatus (Myxobacteria): Isolation and Structure Elucidation
Two novel metabolites, ajudazols A (1) and B (2), were isolated in a screening of the myxobacterial genus Chondromyces from several strains of C. crocatus. Both 1 and 2 are unique isochromanone
Jasplakinolide, a cytotoxic natural product, induces actin polymerization and competitively inhibits the binding of phalloidin to F-actin.
TLDR
The results imply that jasplakinolide may exert its cytotoxic effect in vivo by inducing actin polymerization and/or stabilizing pre-existing actin filaments.
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