Airway management and anesthesia in neonates, infants and children during endolaryngotracheal surgery.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Endolaryngotracheal surgery in neonates, infants and children poses a big challenge for both anesthesiologist and surgeon. The narrowness of the airways and the great variability of the pathological lesions necessitate close collaboration between the surgical and the anesthesia team to provide optimal operating conditions and ensure adequate ventilation and oxygenation. METHODS Sixty-two anesthetic records of endolaryngotracheal surgical procedures in neonates, infants and children with ASA physical status 1-3 were analyzed retrospectively. Anesthesia was administered as total intravenous anesthesia; propofol supplemented with remifentanil. Ventilation was performed as supraglottic, superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation via jet laryngoscope with integrated jet nozzles. RESULTS Age was 58.93 (SD 35.40) months, range 3 weeks to 14 years; body weight 17.83 (SD 8.79) kg, range 2.4-50 kg. The capillary pCO(2) 5 min after the start of the surgical procedure (n = 62) was 40.01 (SD 7.71) mmHg and after 20 min (n = 24) 41.77 (SD 7.12) mmHg. No hypoxemia (oxygen saturation <90%) developed. All patients were hemodynamically stable during jet ventilation. Barotrauma or gas insufflation in the stomach did not occur. No perioperative tracheostomy was necessary. Laryngospasm occurred in one child during emergence from anesthesia. Four infants received postoperative conventional respirator therapy in the ICU overnight. CONCLUSIONS Supraglottic superimposed high-/low-frequency jet ventilation via jet laryngoscopes with integrated jet nozzles is a minimally invasive ventilation technique for neonates, infants and children in endolaryngotracheal surgery, which allows an unimpaired operating field for the surgeon especially in LASER surgery.

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@article{Mausser2007AirwayMA, title={Airway management and anesthesia in neonates, infants and children during endolaryngotracheal surgery.}, author={Gerlinde Mausser and Gerhard K. Friedrich and Gerhard Schwarz}, journal={Paediatric anaesthesia}, year={2007}, volume={17 10}, pages={942-7} }