Airborne Studies of the Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires

  title={Airborne Studies of the Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires},
  author={Peter V. Hobbs and Lawrence F. Radke},
  pages={987 - 991}
Airborne studies of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were carried out in the spring of 1991 when ∼4.6 million barrels of oil were burning per day. Emissions of sulfur dioxide were ∼57% of that from electric utilities in the United States; emissions of carbon dioxide were ∼2% of global emissions; emissions of soot were ∼3400 metric tons per day. The smoke absorbed ∼75 to 80% of the sun's radiation in regions of the Persian Gulf. However, the smoke probably had insignificant global effects because… 

Chemical composition of emissions from the Kuwait oil fires

Airborne measurements in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires in May and June 1991 indicate that the combined oil and gas emissions were equivalent to the consumption of about 4.6 million barrels of

Ozone chemistry in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

Ozone depletion occurred in the core of the plume of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires within 100 km of the fires, primarily in regions where NOx concentrations were high and ultraviolet flux was near

Kuwait Oil Fires: Correction

Recalculation of the depletion rates of SO2 and NOx, with the use of uncontaminated measurements of CO2 from the "grab" sampler aboard the aircraft yielded values of 6 and 22%, respectively.

Radiative effects of the smoke clouds from the Kuwait oil fires

The radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were assessed by measuring downwelling and upwelling solar flux, as well as spectral solar extinction beneath, above, and within the smoke

Chain‐aggregate aerosols in smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

Electrooptical scattering was used to detect aggregated particle chains in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires. Nonsphericity was detected by the change in light scattering brought about by induced

Heterogeneous chemistry in the smoke plume from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires

During late spring of 1991, airborne measurements in the smoke plume from the Kuwait oil fires indicated that SO2 was removed from the gas phase at rates of ∼6 to 8% h−1 and that NOx was removed at

Hydroxyl radical concentrations and Kuwait oil fire emission rates for March 1991

Toward the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi troops damaged several hundred oil wells in Kuwait setting many of them on fire. Measurements made in March 1991, a few weeks after most of the fires had started

Satellite monitoring of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

The smoke from the oil fires in Kuwait was easily visible in observations from weather satellites in polar and geosynchronous orbits. A portable work station provided these data for planning the

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle



Airborne observations of the physical and chemical characteristics of the Kuwait oil smoke plume

Airborne measurements in the densest part of the smoke plume at about 120km from the burning wells in Kuwait in late March 1991 showed typical particulate mass densities of 500–1,000 µgm−3, mixing

Environmental effects from burning oil wells in Kuwait

Model calculations, constrained by satellite observations, indicate that most of the smoke from the oil fires in Kuwait will remain in the lowest few kilometres of the troposphere. Beneath the plume

Climate response to smoke from the burning oil wells in Kuwait

The response of the global climate system to smoke from burning oil wells in Kuwait is investigated in a series of numerical experiments using a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model

Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multple Nuclear Explosions

The potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war are investigated using models previously developed to study the effects of volcanic eruptions, finding long-term exposure to cold, dark, and radioactivity could pose a serious threat to human survivors and to other species.

Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.

The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed, and serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere.

Global atmospheric effects of massive smoke injections from a nuclear war: results from general circulation model simulations

We report three-dimensional calculations of regional and global climatic effects of smoke generated by a large-scale nuclear war. Tropospheric aerosols of absorption optical depth 3, when injected

Environmental impact of fires in Kuwait

The deliberate firing of the Kuwaiti oil wells by the Iraqis is an act of gross environmental vandalism. But the likely impacts on the climate have been exaggerated.


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The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange

Several groups have published studies on the possible environmental and atmospheric consequence of a nuclear war. The major theory is that a nuclear war would produce a hemispherewide climatic