Airborne Studies of the Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires

  title={Airborne Studies of the Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires},
  author={Peter V. Hobbs and Lawrence F. Radke},
  pages={987 - 991}
Airborne studies of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were carried out in the spring of 1991 when ∼4.6 million barrels of oil were burning per day. Emissions of sulfur dioxide were ∼57% of that from electric utilities in the United States; emissions of carbon dioxide were ∼2% of global emissions; emissions of soot were ∼3400 metric tons per day. The smoke absorbed ∼75 to 80% of the sun's radiation in regions of the Persian Gulf. However, the smoke probably had insignificant global effects because… Expand
Chemical composition of emissions from the Kuwait oil fires
Airborne measurements in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires in May and June 1991 indicate that the combined oil and gas emissions were equivalent to the consumption of about 4.6 million barrels ofExpand
Ozone chemistry in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires
Ozone depletion occurred in the core of the plume of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires within 100 km of the fires, primarily in regions where NOx concentrations were high and ultraviolet flux was nearExpand
Radiative effects of the smoke clouds from the Kuwait oil fires
The radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were assessed by measuring downwelling and upwelling solar flux, as well as spectral solar extinction beneath, above, and within the smokeExpand
Chain‐aggregate aerosols in smoke from the Kuwait oil fires
Electrooptical scattering was used to detect aggregated particle chains in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires. Nonsphericity was detected by the change in light scattering brought about by inducedExpand
Heterogeneous chemistry in the smoke plume from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires
During late spring of 1991, airborne measurements in the smoke plume from the Kuwait oil fires indicated that SO2 was removed from the gas phase at rates of ∼6 to 8% h−1 and that NOx was removed atExpand
Hydroxyl radical concentrations and Kuwait oil fire emission rates for March 1991
Toward the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi troops damaged several hundred oil wells in Kuwait setting many of them on fire. Measurements made in March 1991, a few weeks after most of the fires had startedExpand
Satellite monitoring of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires
The smoke from the oil fires in Kuwait was easily visible in observations from weather satellites in polar and geosynchronous orbits. A portable work station provided these data for planning theExpand
Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires
Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. ParticleExpand
An evaluation of air pollutant exposures due to the 1991 Kuwait oil fires using a Lagrangian model
Abstract A Lagrangian model was adapted to simulate the transport, dispersion, and deposition of pollutants from the Kuwait oil fires. Modifications to the model permitted radiative effects of theExpand
Health effects of the 1991 Kuwait oil fires: a survey of US army troops.
Questions were administered to 1599 soldiers after their return from a 3-month mission in Kuwait to determine whether there were health-related complaints associated with having lived and worked there, and symptoms were associated with reported proximity to oil fires. Expand


Airborne observations of the physical and chemical characteristics of the Kuwait oil smoke plume
Airborne measurements in the densest part of the smoke plume at about 120km from the burning wells in Kuwait in late March 1991 showed typical particulate mass densities of 500–1,000 µgm−3, mixingExpand
Environmental effects from burning oil wells in Kuwait
Model calculations, constrained by satellite observations, indicate that most of the smoke from the oil fires in Kuwait will remain in the lowest few kilometres of the troposphere. Beneath the plumeExpand
Climate response to smoke from the burning oil wells in Kuwait
The response of the global climate system to smoke from burning oil wells in Kuwait is investigated in a series of numerical experiments using a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation modelExpand
Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multple Nuclear Explosions
The potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war are investigated using models previously developed to study the effects of volcanic eruptions, finding long-term exposure to cold, dark, and radioactivity could pose a serious threat to human survivors and to other species. Expand
Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.
The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed, and serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. Expand
Global atmospheric effects of massive smoke injections from a nuclear war: results from general circulation model simulations
We report three-dimensional calculations of regional and global climatic effects of smoke generated by a large-scale nuclear war. Tropospheric aerosols of absorption optical depth 3, when injectedExpand
The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange
Several groups have published studies on the possible environmental and atmospheric consequence of a nuclear war. The major theory is that a nuclear war would produce a hemispherewide climaticExpand
Environmental impact of fires in Kuwait
The deliberate firing of the Kuwaiti oil wells by the Iraqis is an act of gross environmental vandalism. But the likely impacts on the climate have been exaggerated.
  • 95,
An airborne study of the smoke from the Kuwait fires was carried out in March 1991 by
  • Nature
  • 1991