Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population

@article{Di2017AirPA,
  title={Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population},
  author={Qian Di and Yan Wang and Antonella Zanobetti and Yun Wang and Petros Koutrakis and Christine Choirat and Francesca Dominici and Joel D. Schwartz},
  journal={The New England Journal of Medicine},
  year={2017},
  volume={376},
  pages={2513–2522}
}
  • Q. DiYan Wang J. Schwartz
  • Published 28 June 2017
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
  • The New England Journal of Medicine
BACKGROUND Studies have shown that long‐term exposure to air pollution increases mortality. However, evidence is limited for air‐pollution levels below the most recent National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Previous studies involved predominantly urban populations and did not have the statistical power to estimate the health effects in underrepresented groups. METHODS We constructed an open cohort of all Medicare beneficiaries (60,925,443 persons) in the continental United States from the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Mortality risk and PM2.5 air pollution in the USA: an analysis of a national prospective cohort

Evidence is provided that elevated risks of mortality, especially cardiovascular disease mortality, are associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution in US nationwide adult cohorts constructed from public-use NHIS data.

Association of Short-term Exposure to Air Pollution With Mortality in Older Adults

In the US Medicare population from 2000 to 2012, short-term exposures to PM2.5 and warm-season ozone were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality, suggesting that these standards may need to be reevaluated.

Long term exposure to air pollution and mortality in an elderly cohort in Hong Kong.

Mortality Risk and Fine Particulate Air Pollution in a Large, Representative Cohort of U.S. Adults

PM2.5–mortality associations were consistently positive for all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality across key modeling choices and across subgroups of sex, age, race-ethnicity, income, education levels, and geographic regions.

Long-Term Association of Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions Among Medicare Participants Using a Doubly Robust Additive Model

Long-term exposure to air pollutants poses a significant risk to cardiovascular and respiratory health among the elderly population in the United States, with the greatest increase in the association per unit of exposure occurring at lower concentrations.

Causal Effects of Air Pollution on Mortality Rate in Massachusetts

Air pollution epidemiology studies have primarily investigated long- and short-term exposures separately, have used multiplicative models, and have been associational studies. Implementing a

Fine particulate air pollution and human mortality: 25+ years of cohort studies.

...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES

Mortality associations with long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution in a national English cohort.

These results strengthen the evidence linking long-term ambient air pollution exposure to increased all-cause mortality, however, the stronger associations with respiratory mortality are not consistent with most US studies in which associations with cardiovascular causes of death tend to predominate.

Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution was associated with an increased risk of total and CVD mortality, providing an independent test of the PM21.5–mortality relationship in a new large U.S. prospective cohort experiencing lower post-2000 PM3.5 exposure levels.

Long-term ozone exposure and mortality.

In this large study, it was not able to detect an effect of ozone on the risk of death from cardiovascular causes when the concentration of PM(2.5) was taken into account, but a significant increase in the risk from respiratory causes was demonstrated in association with an increase in ozone concentration.

Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality: A Comparison of the Six Cities and American Cancer Society Cohorts With a Medicare Cohort

It is proposed that the Medicare files can be used to construct on-going cohorts for tracking the risk of air pollution over time and risks similar to those in the previously published reports, which incorporated more extensive information on individual-level confounders.

Estimating the Causal Effect of Low Levels of Fine Particulate Matter on Hospitalization

In a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees, changes in exposure to PM2.5, even at levels consistently below standards, are associated with increases in hospital admissions for all causes and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

Long-Term Ozone Exposure and Mortality in a Large Prospective Study.

Findings derived from this large-scale prospective study suggest that long-term ambient O3 contributes to risk of respiratory and circulatory mortality and substantial health and environmental benefits may be achieved by implementing further measures aimed at controlling O3 concentrations.

Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States.

Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States, and this study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties.

An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities.

It is suggested that fine-particulate air pollution, or a more complex pollution mixture associated with fine particulate matter, contributes to excess mortality in certain U.S. cities.

Risk estimates of mortality attributed to low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter in the Canadian community health survey cohort

Increased risks of non-accidental, circulatory, and respiratory mortality were observed even at very low concentrations of ambient PM2.5, and HRs were generally greater than most literature values, and adjusting for behavioural covariates served to reduce HR estimates slightly.