Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome can occur without the activity of key non-homologous end-joining proteins.

Abstract

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major model proposed for Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome. In animal cells, several proteins, including KU70, KU80, ARTEMIS, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV (LIG4), Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), play an important role in 'classical' (c)NHEJ. Other proteins, including histone H1 (HON1), XRCC1, and PARP1, participate in a 'backup' (b)NHEJ process. We examined transient and stable transformation frequencies of Arabidopsis thaliana roots mutant for numerous NHEJ and other related genes. Mutants of KU70, KU80, and the plant-specific DNA Ligase VI (LIG6) showed increased stable transformation susceptibility. However, these mutants showed transient transformation susceptibility similar to that of wild-type plants, suggesting enhanced T-DNA integration in these mutants. These results were confirmed using a promoter-trap transformation vector that requires T-DNA integration into the plant genome to activate a promoterless gusA (uidA) gene, by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of Nicotiana benthamiana NHEJ genes, and by biochemical assays for T-DNA integration. No alteration in transient or stable transformation frequencies was detected with atm, atr, lig4, xrcc1, or parp1 mutants. However, mutation of parp1 caused high levels of T-DNA integration and transgene methylation. A double mutant (ku80/parp1), knocking out components of both NHEJ pathways, did not show any decrease in stable transformation or T-DNA integration. Thus, T-DNA integration does not require known NHEJ proteins, suggesting an alternative route for integration.

DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12779

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Cite this paper

@article{Park2015AgrobacteriumTI, title={Agrobacterium T-DNA integration into the plant genome can occur without the activity of key non-homologous end-joining proteins.}, author={So-Yon Park and Zarir E Vaghchhipawala and Balaji Vasudevan and L Lee and Yunjia Shen and Kamy Singer and Wanda M. Waterworth and Zhanyuan J Zhang and Christopher E. West and Kirankumar S Mysore and S. B. Gelvin}, journal={The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology}, year={2015}, volume={81 6}, pages={934-46} }