Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

@article{Stark2003AgriculturalAA,
  title={Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.},
  author={John D. Stark and William K Walthall},
  journal={Environmental toxicology and chemistry},
  year={2003},
  volume={22 12},
  pages={3056-61}
}
Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental… CONTINUE READING