Aging and measures of processing speed

  title={Aging and measures of processing speed},
  author={Timothy Salthouse},
  journal={Biological Psychology},
  • T. Salthouse
  • Published 1 October 2000
  • Psychology
  • Biological Psychology

Genetic and environmental architecture of processing speed across midlife.

The results suggest that PS is highly heritable when considered at a latent variable level, and that there are different rates of change in tests of PS within this sample.

Age-Related Changes in Processing Speed: Unique Contributions of Cerebellar and Prefrontal Cortex

It is demonstrated that at least two distinct factors affect age-related changes in processing speed, which might be slowed by mitigating cerebral small vessel disease and factors affecting declines in cerebellar morphology.

The Roles of Working Memory Updating and Processing Speed in Mediating Age-related Differences in Fluid Intelligence

  • Tianyong ChenDeming Li
  • Psychology
    Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition
  • 2007
The results suggest that updating, but not speed, is the critical mediator between age and fluid intelligence.

An analysis of age differences in perceptual speed

It is concluded that perceptual comparison tests are dependent on multiple age-sensitive abilities, not all of which are related to age differences in higher level cognition.

Domain general processes moderate age-related performance differences on the mnemonic similarity task

Test whether domain-general processes of cognitive aging moderate age-related performance decrements on the mnemonic similarity task, a task thought to rely on hippocampal pattern separation and completion, and whether processing speed and inhibitory function moderate this effect.

Understanding age-related differences in the speed of information processing of complex object categories measured with electroencephalography (EEG)

Ageing is associated with differences in visual function which can be observed, for example, as a decline in performance on face and object processing tasks. One of the most prominent accounts of

Age effects on different components of theory of mind




General and specific speed mediation of adult age differences in memory.

  • T. Salthouse
  • Psychology
    The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
  • 1996
Results from three earlier studies and from a new study suggest that a large proportion of the age-related variance in a wide range of speed measures is shared and is not distinct.

The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition.

A theory is proposed that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism.

The Nature of the Influence of Speed on Adult Age Differences in Cognition.

Two studies were conducted to determine the relations among age, motor speed, perceptual speed, and 3 measures of cognitive performance: study time, decision time, and decision accuracy. Each study

Independence of age-related influences on cognitive abilities across the life span.

The results indicate that the majority of age-related differences appear to be shared across different cognitive variables and are well predicted by individual differences in higher order factors, suggesting that the role of task-specific interpretations of developmental differences in cognition needs to be reevaluated.

Aging, inhibition, working memory, and speed.

  • T. SalthouseE. Meinz
  • Psychology
    The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
  • 1995
Although the age-related variance in measures of working memory was substantially reduced after control of the interference measures, the degree of attenuation was at least as large when speed measures from other tasks were controlled.

Attentional blocks are not responsible for age-related slowing.

Results imply that age-related slowing is associated with a shift (and expansion) in the entire RT distribution, and is not attributable to a selective influence on the individual's slowest responses.

The Structure of Cognitive Speed Measures in Old and Young Adults.

The issue of structure of measures of speed was addressed by conducting simultaneous confirmatory factor analyses in two age groups at the level of first order and then at thelevel of second order factors, suggesting that a weak version of the speed hypothesis is correct.

Aging and speed of behavior: possible consequences for psychological functioning.

As a marker of aging, speed needs further exploration that will compare the slowness observed in different subgroups of adults with a wide range of outcomes in their productivity, capacity for adaptation to life's demands, and health.

How Many Causes Are There of Aging-Related Decrements in Cognitive Functioning?

Abstract Two analytical methods are proposed to evaluate the extent to which the age-related influences in a set of variables are independent of one another. Application of the methods to 16

A comparison of the factor structure of processing speed for younger and older adults: testing the assumption of measurement equivalence across age groups.

The results suggest that there is sufficient evidence of measurement equivalence on the current speed measures across the 2 adult age groups and, in addition, provide evidence of dedifferentiation.