Aging Blow Fly Eggs Using Gene Expression: A Feasibility Study

  title={Aging Blow Fly Eggs Using Gene Expression: A Feasibility Study},
  author={Aaron M. Tarone and Kimberley C. Jennings and David R. Foran},
  journal={Journal of Forensic Sciences},
Abstract:  Forensic entomology can aid death investigations by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the ages of flies associated with a body. In developmental stages that do not increase in size however, including the egg and pupa, it can be difficult to objectively refine an age estimate beyond the limits of the stage duration. Gene transcript levels, changing throughout development, represent a potential data source useful for objectively identify smaller units of developmental… 
Gene Expression During Blow Fly Development: Improving the Precision of Age Estimates in Forensic Entomology *,†
Generalized additive models of development showed improved statistical support compared to models that did not include gene expression data, resulting in an increase in estimate precision, especially for postfeeding third instars and pupae.
The analysis of temporal gene expression to estimate the age of forensically important blow fly pupae: results from three blind studies
It is shown that age of C. vicina pupae can be well estimated based on gene expression data, which has the potential to outperform morphological analysis in age estimation of forensically relevant blow fly pupae.
Age-Dependent Gene Expression of Blow Fly Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during Egg Development Improving Age Estimation in Forensic Entomology
The feasibility of predicting egg age from ovi-position to hatching over 2 hour’s intervals of egg development is investigated and indicates that developmental eggs exhibit differential and specific time-dependent expression profile of target genes that can contribute as measurable factors in future investigations.
Differential gene expression during metamorphosis: a promising approach for age estimation of forensically important Calliphora vicina pupae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Quantification through real-time PCR revealed significant up- and downregulation of these transcripts found to be temperature dependent and age specific, hence, a new possibility to age forensically important blow fly pupae.
Descriptive analyses of differentially expressed genes during larval development of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Examination of gene expression patterns of six genes during larval development of Calliphora vicina at three constant temperatures and the effect of a combination of morphological and molecular age markers on statistical models of development shows reliable tendencies to classify the post-feeding stage more precisely.
Increasing Precision in Development-Based Postmortem Interval Estimates: What's Sex Got to Do with it?
A new tool, assessment of sex-specific growth, is introduced that has the potential to reduce noise in PMIMIN estimates when using third instar larvae.
Internal Morphological Analysis for Age Estimation of Blow Fly Pupae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Postmortem Interval Estimation *
It was determined that blow fly pupae should be pierced through the three tagma, hot‐water‐killed, and preserved in 80% ethanol as the optimal preservation for subsequent analyses, and differences in brain and thoracic muscle development throughout the pupal stage with potential for age estimation were revealed.
Time Flies—Age Grading of Adult Flies for the Estimation of the Post-Mortem Interval
The current state of the art of analysing the aging of flies is reviewed by evaluating the ovarian development, the amount of pteridine in the eyes, the degree of wing damage, the modification of their cuticular hydrocarbon patterns, and the increasing number of growth layers in the cuticula.
Dating Pupae of the Blow Fly Calliphora vicina Robineau–Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for Post Mortem Interval—Estimation: Validation of Molecular Age Markers
This study designed and validated two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for each of 15 defined pupal ages representing a daily progress during the total pupal development if grown at 17 °C and investigated whether the performance of these assays is affected by the ambient temperature.


The use of transcriptional profiles to predict adult mosquito age under field conditions
This work reports the development of a transcriptional profiling approach to determine age of adult female Aedes aegypti under field conditions that surpasses current cuticular hydrocarbon methods for both accuracy of predicted age as well as the upper limits at which age can be reliably predicted.
Components of Developmental Plasticity in a Michigan Population of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
The large environmental influence on development observed in this study could affect forensic entomology casework and accentuates the need for a standardized means of rearing flies in a laboratory setting that is relevant to decomposition on a corpse.
Gene Expression During the Life Cycle of Drosophila melanogaster
These studies define major characteristics of the transcriptional programs that underlie the life cycle, compare development in males and females, and show that large-scale gene expression data collected from whole animals can be used to identify genes expressed in particular tissues and organs or genes involved in specific biological and biochemical processes.
Insect nuclear receptors: a developmental and comparative perspective.
Transcriptional heterochrony of scute and changes in bristle pattern between two closely related species of blowfly.
Sc expression is described in Phormia terranovae, a species belonging to the family Calliphoridae that is closely related to C. vicina and it is found that spatial regulation is almost identical between P. terranvae and C. Vicina, in spite of their different bristle patterns.
How to get ahead: the origin, evolution and function of bicoid
  • A. McGregor
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2005
This work discusses investigations of bcd in other higher dipterans that have provided insight into the evolution of regulatory interactions and the Bcd gradient, and suggests further comparative studies may allow us to identify the intermediate steps in bcd evolution.
Minimum and maximum development rates of some forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera).
Development rates determined for five forensically important species in British Columbia, Phormia regina, Phaenicia sericata, Eucalliphora latifrons, Lucilia illustris, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, at several temperatures are presented.
Analysis of biological development
This work analyzes the role of cells in development and the use of mutants and transgenic organisms in the analysis of development transcriptional control RNA processing translational control and post-translational modifications genetic and paragenetic information.
Temporal profiles of nuclear receptor gene expression reveal coordinate transcriptional responses during Drosophila development.
The temporal patterns of expression for all detectable nuclear receptor transcripts throughout major ecdysone-regulated developmental transitions in the life cycle: embryogenesis, a larval molt, puparium formation, and the prepupal-pupal transition are characterized.