BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of gut inflammation, bacterial dysbiosis and increased rates of malignancy in CF is unclear. Fecal M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) is a biomarker indicative of cellular proliferation that may be raised in intestinal malignancy and inflammation. Biomarkers, including M2-PK, may be useful in assessing effects of novel therapies on the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS M2-PK was measured in stools collected from patients with CF and HC (0-10years). Linear mixed model analysis was used. RESULTS M2-PK levels did not significantly change in children with CF (36 patients, 77 samples) (P=0.998) or HC (45 patients, 45 samples) (P=0.21), over the age range 0-10years. Patients with CF had elevated M2-PK compared to HC (median [IQR; range]: 10.7 [5.7-28.6; 1.0-239.1] (n=77) vs. 1.0 [1.0-1.0; 1.0-50.0] (n=45) U/mL, respectively; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS Fecal M2-PK was elevated in children with CF compared with HC during infancy and throughout childhood suggesting abnormalities in the CF gut exist in early life.