Age of Acquisition Effects in Word Reading and Other Tasks

  title={Age of Acquisition Effects in Word Reading and Other Tasks},
  author={Jason D. Zevin and Mark S. Seidenberg},
  journal={Journal of Memory and Language},
Recent studies have suggested that age of acquisition (AoA) has an impact on skilled reading independent of factors such as frequency. This result raises questions about previous studies in which AoA was not controlled and about current theories in which it is not addressed. Analyses of the materials used in previous studies suggest that the observed AoA effects may have been due to other factors. We also found little evidence for an AoA effect in computational models of reading that used words… 
The Effects of Age-of-Acquisition on Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Eye Movements
Words that are rated as acquired earlier in life receive shorter fixation durations than later acquired words, even when word frequency is adequately controlled (Juhasz & Rayner, 2003; 2006). Some
Effects of experience in a developmental model of reading
The modelling results demonstrate that AoA operates differentially on concrete and abstract words, indicating that both the mapping and the representation accounts of AoA were contributing to the model’s performance.
Revisiting age-of-acquisition effects in Spanish visual word recognition: the role of item imageability.
The results suggest that highly imageable items induce a larger reliance on semantics in reading aloud, which causes faster naming of earlier acquired words because the corresponding concepts have richer visual and sensory features acquired mainly through direct sensory experience.
Age-of-acquisition effects in reading aloud: Tests of cumulative frequency and frequency trajectory
The results clarify the conditions under which age-dependent learning effects occur in reading aloud and confirm three behavioral predictions derived from connectionist models that distinguished between cumulative frequency and frequency trajectory.
Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Pure Alexia
Results from a sentence reading task in which eye movement patterns were recorded indicated that patients with pure alexia rely heavily on intact top-down information, supporting the interactive activation model of reading.
Age of acquisition effects on the decomposition of compound words
ABSTRACT Age of acquisition (AoA) is a measure of learning experience and a strong predictor of lexical retrieval. The integrated account predicts that the AoA effect should be shown in the early
Frequency, not age of acquisition, affects Italian word naming
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the claim that age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects are reduced or nonexistent in languages that have very regular letter-to-sound mappings,
The Distinct Contributions of Age of Acquisition and Word Frequency in Auditory Word Perception
Two studies of the distinct effects that a word's age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency have on the mental lexicon are reported, showing that AoA and frequency are related in different ways to the phonological form and imageability of different words.


Word frequency effects in oral reading are not merely age-of-acquisition effects in disguise.
Four experiments examined the effects of the rated age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency on oral reading latencies and word pronunciation durations. In Experiment 1, both AoA and frequency had
Real age of acquisition effects in word naming and lexical decision.
Use of objective age of acquisition norms derived from children's naming data shows that AoA effects do not depend upon the use of adult ratings, and influences of word frequency and orthographic neighbourhood size were obtained in both word naming and lexical decision.
Age of acquisition, word frequency, and the role of phonology in the lexical decision task
The results are discussed in terms of current models of reading in which it is proposed that AoA has its primary effect on the retrieval of lexical phonology, which appears to be consulted automatically in the lexical decision task.
Two age of acquisition effects in the reading of Japanese Kanji
Native speakers of Japanese were shown single-character Kanji words which they read aloud as quickly as possible. Simultaneous multiple regression was used to investigate which of a set of nine
Age of acquisition and lexical processing in aphasia: a case study
Abstract This paper presents a single-case study of an aphasic patient, NP, whose lexical processing was affected by age of acquisition, such that words typically acquired early in life were
The Early Word Catches the Weights
A significant contribution of AoA to naming latency is found, as well as conditions under which frequency provides an independent contribution, using a simple feed forward neural network.
Real age-of-acquisition effects in lexical retrieval.
  • A. Ellis, C. Morrison
  • Psychology, Linguistics
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1998
The authors conclude that age-of-acquisition effects are real and suggest that age of acquisition influences the speed with which spoken word forms can be retrieved from the phonological lexicon.
Theories of word naming interact with spelling-sound consistency.
The authors question their alternative interpretation of word naming by raising a number of conceptual and methodological issues germane to this debate and presenting new data that confirm a significant interaction between spelling-sound typicality and imageability in word-naming latencies, an interaction that is reliable when word AoA is controlled in a regression analysis.
The effects of age-of-acquisition and frequency-of-occurrence in visual word recognition: Further evidence from the Dutch language
It has been claimed that the frequency effect in visual word naming is an artefact of age-of-acquisition: Words are named faster not because they are encountered more often in texts, but because they