Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table-Type Speleothems

@article{Polyak2008AgeAE,
  title={Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table-Type Speleothems},
  author={Victor J. Polyak and Carol A. Hill and Yemane Asmerom},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={319},
  pages={1377 - 1380}
}
The age and evolution of the Grand Canyon have been subjects of great interest and debate since its discovery. We found that cave mammillaries (water table indicator speleothems) from nine sites in the Grand Canyon showed uranium-lead dating evidence for an old western Grand Canyon on the assumption that groundwater table decline rates are equivalent to incision rates. Samples in the western Grand Canyon yielded apparent water table decline rates of 55 to 123 meters per million years over the… 
Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon
TLDR
Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry data from the Grand Canyon basement are presented that tightly constrain the near-surface cooling history associated with canyon incision, suggesting that the western Grand Canyon likely reached near modern depths by 70 million years ago—nearly 60 million years earlier than generally believed.
Comment on "Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table–Type Speleothems"
TLDR
Water-table declines at these sites were more likely related to local base-level changes and Miocene regional extensional tectonics than to Plio-Quaternary incision rates derived from sites outside the Grand Canyon.
New thermochronometric constraints on the Tertiary landscape evolution of the central and eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona
Thermal histories are modeled from new apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission-track data in order to quantitatively constrain the landscape evolution of the Grand Canyon region. Fifty new samples and
New Geochemical and Isotopic Approaches to Shallow Crust Landform Evolution
Many researchers have studied the Guadalupe Mountains in detail and starting with King (1948), many of them have speculated about the timing of the uplift of the Guadalupe block. There are several
The California River and its role in carving Grand Canyon
Recently published thermochronological and paleoelevation studies in the Grand Canyon region, combined with sedimentary provenance data in both the coastal and interior portions of the North American
U–Pb Dating of Cave Spar: A New Shallow Crust Landscape Evolution Tool
In carbonate terranes, rocks types that provide apatite are not available to effectively use apatite fission track (AFT) or (U/Th)‐He chronometry (AHe). Here we suggest that calcite cave spar can be
Geological Society of America Bulletin
Recently published thermochronological and paleoelevation studies in the Grand Canyon region, combined with sedimentary provenance data in both the coastal and interior portions of the North American
Incision history of Glenwood Canyon, Colorado, USA, from the uranium-series analyses of water-table speleothems
Uranium-series analyses of water-table-type speleothems from Glenwood Cavern and “cavelets” near the town of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, USA, yield incision rates of the Colorado River in Glenwood
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References and Notes
our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly
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