Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table-Type Speleothems

@article{Polyak2008AgeAE,
  title={Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table-Type Speleothems},
  author={Victor J. Polyak and Carol A. Hill and Yemane Asmerom},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={319},
  pages={1377 - 1380}
}
The age and evolution of the Grand Canyon have been subjects of great interest and debate since its discovery. We found that cave mammillaries (water table indicator speleothems) from nine sites in the Grand Canyon showed uranium-lead dating evidence for an old western Grand Canyon on the assumption that groundwater table decline rates are equivalent to incision rates. Samples in the western Grand Canyon yielded apparent water table decline rates of 55 to 123 meters per million years over the… 

Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon

TLDR
Apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry data from the Grand Canyon basement are presented that tightly constrain the near-surface cooling history associated with canyon incision, suggesting that the western Grand Canyon likely reached near modern depths by 70 million years ago—nearly 60 million years earlier than generally believed.

Comment on "Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table–Type Speleothems"

TLDR
Water-table declines at these sites were more likely related to local base-level changes and Miocene regional extensional tectonics than to Plio-Quaternary incision rates derived from sites outside the Grand Canyon.

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Comment on "Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table–Type Speleothems"

TLDR
It is shown that speleothem data leading to their inference that the western Grand Canyon incised much earlier than previously thought contradicts several lines of published geological knowledge in the region, hinges upon unjustified hydrogeological assumptions, and is based on two anomalous data points for which alternatives are offered.

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Many researchers have studied the Guadalupe Mountains in detail and starting with King (1948), many of them have speculated about the timing of the uplift of the Guadalupe block. There are several

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Recently published thermochronological and paleoelevation studies in the Grand Canyon region, combined with sedimentary provenance data in both the coastal and interior portions of the North American

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In carbonate terranes, rocks types that provide apatite are not available to effectively use apatite fission track (AFT) or (U/Th)‐He chronometry (AHe). Here we suggest that calcite cave spar can be

Geological Society of America Bulletin

Recently published thermochronological and paleoelevation studies in the Grand Canyon region, combined with sedimentary provenance data in both the coastal and interior portions of the North American

Response to Comments on the "Age and Evolution of the Grand Canyon Revealed by U-Pb Dating of Water Table–Type Speleothems"

Pederson et al. and Pearthree et al. offer critical comments on our study of the age and evolution of the Grand Canyon. Both sets of authors question our use of incision rates from two sample sites

Model for tectonically driven incision of the younger than 6 Ma Grand Canyon

Accurate models for the incision of the Grand Canyon must include characterization of tectonic influences on incision dynamics such as active faulting and mantle to surface fluid interconnections.
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References and Notes

our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly