Factors associated with non-orthotopic urinary diversion after radical cystectomy
PURPOSE After cystectomy for bladder cancer, when pelvic lymph nodes are positive, bladder replacement remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent neobladder replacement despite bladder cancer metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS From 1981 to 1997, a total of 504 consecutive cystectomies for bladder cancer were performed at our institution. For 150 patients, pelvic lymphadenectomy were positive, nevertheless 71 patients underwent a neobladder replacement (50 N1 and 21 N2). The distribution of patients by clinical stage, according to the TNM 97 classification, was 4 T1, 14 T2, 32 T3 and 21 T4. No patient showed signs of metastasis on diagnosis. RESULTS Five-year disease specific survival rate of the entire group (71 patients) was 46%. With a mean follow-up of 8.3 years (3.2-20 years), 25 patients (35%) were alive and free of disease (72% with day continence), five patients were alive with recurrence (three bone metastasis, one chest metastasis and one with local recurrence), 41 patients died, (three non-cystectomy related). Of the 46 patients who recurred, a total of eight patients had local recurrence. For five patients, a severe dysfunction of the plasty appeared: two needed definitive bladder drainage until they died, one patient became totally incontinent, one patient needed a conversion of the plasty to Bricker ileal conduit. For the remaining patient the tumor involvement provoked recto-plasty-cutaneous fistula. All these five patients died in the 6 months after the plasty dysfunction appeared. CONCLUSIONS Although prognosis in bladder cancer metastasis to the regional lymph nodes has been reported to be poor, this study demonstrates that after cystectomy, it is justified to propose a neobladder replacement to well selected patients. Local recurrence only occurred in 11% of patients and there was no damage to enteroplasty function for nearly half of the patients, and considering benefit to the quality of life, orthotopic bladder substitution should be considered as the preferential diversion in this patient population.