African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

@article{King2000AfricanHS,
  title={African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.},
  author={S. C. Dillon King and Jeroen Ritsema},
  journal={Science},
  year={2000},
  volume={290 5494},
  pages={1137-40}
}
Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin… CONTINUE READING
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