African hair length in a school population: a clue to disease pathogenesis?

  title={African hair length in a school population: a clue to disease pathogenesis?},
  author={N P Khumalo and Freedom N. Gumedze},
  journal={Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology},
Background  Anecdotal data suggest that combed natural African hair reaches a length steady state. Easier grooming and anticipated long hair have made relaxers popular. 

Baseline sebum IL‐1α is higher than expected in afro‐textured hair: a risk factor for hair loss? *

The objective is to investigate changes in sebum cytokines in response to hair cosmetics to find out if changes in these cytokines reflect changes in the immune response to cosmetics.

Clinical Signs of Hair Damage

The environment causes daily damage to the hair shaft that cannot be repaired and is more evident in the distal part of long hair. Clinical signs of hair damage depend on type of damage and severity

Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

The formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna are reviewed; regarding their prescription and safetiness.

Hair cosmetics: an overview.

The formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna are reviewed; regarding their prescription and safetiness.

'Relaxers' damage hair: evidence from amino acid analysis.

Human Hair as a Testing Substrate in the Era of Precision Medicine: Potential Role of ‘Omics-Based Approaches

This chapter aims to discuss current plausible application of human hair omics-based approaches to the field of pathology, diagnostics and precision/individualized medicine.

The what, why and how of curly hair: a review

A literature review that explores the different aspects of curly human scalp hair and the curvature fibre model as a systemized approach to investigating curly hair are presented.

Electric static charge generated from the sliding of head scarf textiles against skin and hair

Electric static charges building up on human skin and or clothes in direct contact with human body are very harmful and can create serious health problems. In the present work, electric static charge

Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women

The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

No-lye not better than lye relaxers.



African hair growth parameters

Background Hair growth parameters have been studied mostly in caucasian hair, whereas few data on African hair have been reported in the literature.

African hair length: the picture is clearer.

  • N. Khumalo
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 2006

Possible mechanisms of miniaturization during androgenetic alopecia or pattern hair loss.

  • D. Whiting
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 2001
Evidence is presented to support a new concept that miniaturization is an abrupt, large-step process that also can be reversed in 1 hair cycle, as has been shown clinically, with confirmatory histologic evidence, in patients with pattern hair loss responding to finasteride treatment.

The follicular degeneration syndrome in black patients. 'Hot comb alopecia' revisited and revised.

The term follicular degeneration syndrome (FDS) is proposed for this clinically and histologically distinct form of scarring alopecia and it remains unclear whether the use of any of a variety of hair care products and techniques plays a role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

Apparent fragility of African hair is unrelated to the cystine‐rich protein distribution: a cytochemical electron microscopic study

The excessive structural damage observed in the African hair shafts is consistent with physical trauma (resulting from grooming rather than an inherent weakness due to any structural abnormality), and shows that there is no abnormality in their distribution in black Africanhair shafts compared to the other ethnic groups.

A nationwide outbreak of alopecia associated with the use of a hair-relaxing formulation.

A nationwide outbreak of alopecia and scalp injuries involving tens of thousands of women (and some men) occurred following the marketing of a chemical hair-relaxing product, and most of those affected reported substantial hair loss.

Chemically induced cosmetic alopecia

Histology shows a pattern of fibrosis and inflammation characteristic of the physical damage seen with other cosmetic procedures, distinguishable from other non‐cosmetic causes of scarring alopecia.

Ceramide binding to African–American hair fibre correlates with resistance to hair breakage

This study shows that this sphinganine‐derived ceramide (i.e. C18‐dhCer) binds to African–American hair and protects it from weakening caused by chemicals.

What is normal black African hair? A light and scanning electron-microscopic study.

Observations provide an understanding of the physical nature of, and effect of combing on, black African hair.

Hair shape of curly hair.

  • B. Bernard
  • Biology
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 2003
The hair follicle is a unique composite organ, composed of epithelial and dermal compartments interacting with each other in a surprisingly autonomous way. This is a self-renewing organ that seems to