African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages

@article{Knight2003AfricanYC,
  title={African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages},
  author={Alec Knight and Peter A. Underhill and Holly M. Mortensen and Lev A. Zhivotovsky and Alice A. Lin and Brenna M. Henn and Dorothy Louis and Merritt Ruhlen and Joanna L. Mountain},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={13},
  pages={464-473}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basic lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago
TLDR
The possibility that mtDNA macrohaplogroup L3 matured in Eurasia and returned to Africa as basic L3 lineages around 70 kya is assessed, congruent with a model proposing an out-of-Africa of early anatomically modern humans around 125 kya.
Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basal lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago
TLDR
The possibility that mtDNA macrohaplogroup L3 matured in Eurasia and returned to Africa as basal L3 lineages around 70 kya is assessed, congruent with a model proposing an out-of-Africa migration into Asia, following a northern route, of early anatomically modern humans carrying pre-L3 mtDNA lineages.
Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages.
TLDR
A recent origin for most paternal lineages in west Central African populations most likely resulting from the expansion of Bantu-speaking farmers that erased the more ancient Y-chromosome diversity found in this area, and the intriguing presence of paternal lineage belonging to Eurasian haplogroup R1b1*, which might represent footprints of demographic expansions in central Africa not directly related to the BantU expansion.
African evolutionary history inferred from whole genome sequence data of 44 indigenous African populations
TLDR
High levels of genomic variation between ethnically diverse Africans which is largely correlated with geography and language are observed, indicating ancient population substructure and local adaptation of Africans.
Genomic Variation in Seven Khoe-San Groups Reveals Adaptation and Complex African History
TLDR
Genetic variation in various sub-Saharan populations did not localize the origin of modern humans to a single geographic region within Africa; instead, it indicated a history of admixture and stratification, and illustrated the importance of African genomic diversity in understanding human evolutionary history.
A Historical Appraisal of Clicks: A Linguistic and Genetic Population Perspective
Clicks are often considered an exotic feature of languages, and the fact that certain African "Khoisan" groups share the use of clicks as consonants and exhibit deep genetic divergences has been
Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes
TLDR
The data suggest that patterns of differentiation and gene flow in Africa have differed for men and women in the recent evolutionary past, and infer that sex-biased rates of admixture and/or language borrowing between expanding Bantu farmers and local hunter-gatherers played an important role in influencing patterns of genetic variation during the spread of African agriculture in the last 4000 years.
Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia: genetic data support an oral history of a paternal ancestry in Congo
TLDR
NRY data are consistent with the linguistic evidence that Yombe is the most likely group from which the original male settlers of Palenque came, and Mitochondrial DNA data suggested substantial maternal sub-Saharan African ancestry and a strong founder effect but did not associate Palenques with any particular African group.
Genetic structure and sex-biased gene flow in the history of southern African populations
TLDR
The Bantu expansion had a notable genetic impact in southern Africa, and it is confirmed that in this region it was probably a rapid, male-dominated expansion, and a significant increase in the intensity of sex-biased gene flow from north to south is found.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES
Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa.
TLDR
Eurasian sequences are derived from essentially one sequence within this ancient cluster, even though a diverse mitochondrial pool was present in Africa at the time.
A view of modern human origins from Y chromosome microsatellite variation.
TLDR
The magnitude of the excess Y chromosome diversity in African populations appears to result from a greater antiquity of African populations rather than a greater long-term effective population size.
Out of Africa and back again: nested cladistic analysis of human Y chromosome variation.
TLDR
It is inferred that one of the oldest events in the nested cladistic analysis was a range expansion out of Africa which resulted in the complete replacement of Y chromosomes throughout the Old World, a finding consistent with many versions of the Out of Africa Replacement Model.
Genetic relationship between the Canary Islanders and their African and Spanish ancestors inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences
Nucleotide sequences of the hypervariable segment I of the control region of the mtDNA were determined in 101 individuals: 54 Canary Islanders, 18 North African Berbers, 18 Spanish mainlanders and 11
Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations
Binary polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) preserve the paternal genetic legacy of our species that has persisted to the present, permitting
Genes, peoples and languages.
TLDR
A method of absolute genetic dating recently introduced uses mutation rates as molecular clocks; it was applied to human evolution using microsatellites, which have a sufficiently high mutation rate.
The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations
TLDR
A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non‐recombining portion of the Y‐chromosome (NRY) addresses this issue by providing evidence concerning successful migrations originating from Africa, which can be interpreted as subsequent colonizations, differentiations and migrations overlaid upon previous population ranges.
Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal.
TLDR
Reappraising mtDNA control region sequences from aboriginal Siberians and Native Americans confirms in agreement with linguistic, archaeological and climatic evidence that the major wave of migration brought one population, ancestral to the Amerinds, from northeastern Siberia to America 20,000-25,000 years ago.
African populations and the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA.
TLDR
The African origin hypothesis of human mtDNA evolution is supported by two statistical tests and two hypervariable segments of mtDNA were sequenced from 189 people of diverse geographic origin, including 121 native Africans.
Genetics and history of sub‐Saharan Africa
TLDR
The well-known divergence between the historical theories suggested by immunological and DNA data about the relationship between Africa and other gene pools is discussed and an alternative hypothesis issued from overall genetic variation is proposed.
...
...