African Pastoralism: Genetic Imprints of Origins and Migrations

  title={African Pastoralism: Genetic Imprints of Origins and Migrations},
  author={Olivier Hanotte and Daniel G. Bradley and Joel Winyo Ochieng and Y. Verjee and Emmeline W. Hill and J. Edward O. Rege},
  pages={336 - 339}
The genetic history of African cattle pastoralism is controversial and poorly understood. We reveal the genetic signatures of its origins, secondary movements, and differentiation through the study of 15 microsatellite loci in 50 indigenous cattle breeds spanning the present cattle distribution in Africa. The earliest cattle originated within the African continent, but Near East and European genetic influences are also identified. The initial expansion of African Bos taurus was likely from a… 
Admixture analysis of South Asian cattle
Analysis of microsatellite variation in seven Bos indicus cattle breeds from a variety of locations in South Asia revealed a B. taurus influence in the Indian subcontinent; part of a gradation which stretches from Europe through the Near East towards Indian and which may be of ancient origin.
On the origin of cattle: How aurochs became cattle and colonized the world
The most recent genetic data suggest that maternal lineages of taurine cattle originated in the Fertile Crescent with a possible contribution of South‐European wild cattle populations, while zebu cattle originate from the Indus Valley.
Domesticating Animals in Africa: Implications of Genetic and Archaeological Findings
This article argues against the static perspective on domestication as invention and for viewing it as a dynamic, locally based and continuing process.
The mosaic genome of indigenous African cattle as a unique genetic resource for African pastoralism.
It is indicated that a combination of past taurine and recent indicine admixture-derived genetic resources is at the root of the present success of African pastoralism.
Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers
It is proposed that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region.
The genetic history of Mayotte and Madagascar cattle breeds mirrors the complex pattern of human exchanges in Western Indian Ocean
The demographic and adaptive histories of the extant Zebus from the Mayotte and Madagascar islands are unraveled using high-density SNP genotyping data to find that these populations are very closely related and both display a predominant indicine ancestry.
The genetic ancestry of American Creole cattle inferred from uniparental and autosomal genetic markers
The results confirm the mixed ancestry of American Creole cattle and the role that African cattle have played in their development.
Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.
Very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds is found, providing new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size.
Genetic diversity and admixture of indigenous cattle from North Ethiopia: implications of historical introgressions in the gateway region to Africa.
Overall, North Ethiopian cattle show a high level of within-population genetic variation, which is in the upper range of that reported for domestic cattle and indicates their potential for future breeding applications, even in a global context.
Autosomal genetic diversity in non-breed horses from eastern Eurasia provides insights into historical population movements.
The authors' analyses of non-breed horses revealed a pattern of isolation by distance and a significant decline in genetic diversity from east to west, consistent with a westward expansion of horses out of East Asia, which highlights the benefit of studying animals that do not belong to particular breeds when investigating aspects of a population's history.


Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle.
The nature of domestic cattle origins in Africa are unclear as archaeological data are relatively sparse. The earliest domesticates were humpless, or Bos taurus, in morphology and may have shared a
A microsatellite survey of cattle from a centre of origin: the Near East
It was possible to demonstrate that Near Eastern cattle exhibited significantly higher levels of allelic diversity than breeds from other regions, which is consistent with the view that this region represents a primary domestication centre for Bos taurus cattle.
Microsatellite DNA variation and the evolution, domestication and phylogeography of taurine and zebu cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus).
The introgression of zebu-specific alleles in African cattle afforded a high resolution perspective on the hybrid nature of African cattle populations and also suggested that certain West African populations of valuable disease-tolerant taurine cattle are under threat of genetic absorption by migrating zebe herds.
The antiquity of African pastoralism is no longer in dispute. We now have information about more than the broad outlines of the origins and spread of herding societies in the continent. Several
Animal Disease Challenges to the Emergence of Pastoralism in Sub-Saharan Africa
Despite the antiquity of domestic cattle in the Sahara-Sahel, archaeological evidence from two sub-Saharan regions indicates that the first pastoralist colonization of sub-Saharan Africa may not have
Geographic distribution and frequency of a taurine Bos taurus and an indicine Bos indicus Y specific allele amongst sub‐Saharan African cattle breeds
Human migration, phenotypic preferences by the pastoralists, adaptation to specific habitats and to specific diseases are the main factors explaining the present‐day distribution of the alleles in sub‐Saharan Africa.
In this paper, a model by Slatkin (1977) is used to investigate the genetic effects of extinction and recolonization for a species whose population structure consists of an array of local demes with some migration among them and it is found that these genetic effects are surprisingly insensitive to the extinction rate.
The peopling of Africa : a geographic interpretation
Part 1 Beginnings: becoming human cultural origins the agricultural transformation. Part 2 Regional unfoldings: Northern Africa Ethiopia and the Horn Western Africa Central Africa Eastern Africa
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