Aflatoxins and growth impairment: A review

  title={Aflatoxins and growth impairment: A review},
  author={Pornsri Khlangwiset and Gordon S. Shephard and Felicia Wu},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={740 - 755}
Aflatoxins, fungal toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in a variety of food crops, are well known as potent human hepatocarcinogens. Relatively less highlighted in the literature is the association between aflatoxin and growth impairment in children. Foodborne aflatoxin exposure, especially through maize and groundnuts, is common in much of Africa and Asia—areas where childhood stunting and underweight are also common, due to a variety of possibly interacting… 

Public Health Significance of Aflatoxin in Food Industry – A Review

Aflatoxin exposure is linked to increased risk of liver cancer, immunesuppression, increased susceptibility to diseases such as HIV and malaria and possible compromised vaccine efficacy, which can lead to acute liver cirrhosis and death in both human and animals.

Aflatoxicosis and Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

Aflatoxicosis is the most important food borne mycotoxins and a condition caused by aflatoxin in both animal and humans. Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by a variety

Aflatoxins: A Negative Nexus between Agriculture, Nutrition and health

Aflatoxins are poisons that occur naturally in the environment. They are produced mainly by the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, which can affect many of important staple crops:

Harmful Effects and Control Strategies of Aflatoxin B1 Produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Strains on Poultry: Review

The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in poultry diets decreases the hatchability, hatchling weight, growth rate, meat and egg production, meat and egg quality, vaccination efficiency, as well as

The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

The development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure.

Dietary Fumonisin and Growth Impairment in Children and Animals: A Review.

Empirical studies that collectively show an increasing weight of evidence linking fumonisin exposure to growth impairment, particularly in world regions where young children consume maize-based weaning foods are reviewed.

Breaking the Mold: New Strategies for Fighting Aflatoxins

  • C. Schmidt
  • Biology, Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 2013
Chronic exposures to aflatoxins are endemic in developing countries, because aflatoxin monitoring is inadequate, populations tend to rely heavily on just a few staple crops that are vulnerable to Aspergillus infection, and growing conditions often favor mold growth.

Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.

The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, who have been associated with esophageal cancer and neural tube defects; deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A, which has beenassociated with renal diseases.

Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops and development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.



Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions.

The strategy of using food additives to protect farm animals from the toxin may also provide effective and economical new approaches to protecting human populations.

Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: the critical role of weaning.

Exposure to this common toxic contaminant of West African food increases markedly following weaning and exposure early in life is associated with reduced growth, reinforcing the need for aflatoxin exposure intervention strategies within high-risk countries.

Postweaning Exposure to Aflatoxin Results in Impaired Child Growth: A Longitudinal Study in Benin, West Africa

Aflatoxin exposure during the weaning period may be critical in terms of adverse health effects in West African children, and intervention measures to reduce exposure merit investigation.

Modification of immune function through exposure to dietary aflatoxin in Gambian children.

The study provides evidence that sIgA in saliva may be reduced because of dietary levels of aflatoxin exposure, and confirms that children in rural Gambia are frequently exposed to high levels ofAflatoxin.

Potential ameliorators of aflatoxicosis in weanling/growing swine.

Three trials using 207 crossbred pigs were conducted to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin-contaminated corn on young pigs and to determine whether several nutritional and nonnutritional dietary

Effects of aflatoxin on young turkeys and broiler chickens.

Neither humoral immunity nor the development of the acquired immunity to Newcastle disease or fowl cholera vaccination were decreased in turkeys or broilers given AF.

Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

Results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta, and in vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human Placenta to form AFL.

Exposure of newborns to aflatoxin M1 and B1 from mothers' breast milk in Ankara, Turkey.

  • A. GürbayS. Sabuncuoglu G. Tekinalp
  • Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2010

Aflatoxins and fumonisins in corn from the high-incidence area for human hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi, China.

A comparative study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins and Fusarium toxins was conducted with corn samples from high- and low-incidence areas for human primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) in Guangxi, China, finding aflatoxin B(1) may play an important role in the development of PHC.