Aflatoxin B1: A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational exposure, and detoxification methods.

@article{Rushing2019AflatoxinBA,
  title={Aflatoxin B1: A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational exposure, and detoxification methods.},
  author={Blake R. Rushing and M. I. Selim},
  journal={Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association},
  year={2019},
  volume={124},
  pages={
          81-100
        }
}
  • B. Rushing, M. Selim
  • Published 1 February 2019
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
Aflatoxins are a class of carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fungi and are known to contaminate a large portion of the world's food supply. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent of these compounds and has been well-characterized to lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and animals. This review focuses on the metabolism of AFB1, including epoxidation and DNA adduction, as it concerns the initiation of cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The link… 
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Aflatoxins are a class of carcinogenic mycotoxins, products of Aspergillus fungi, which are known contaminants in a large portion of the world’s food supply. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent
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Risk assessment studies revealed that Southeast Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries remain at high risk and that, apart from the regulatory standards revision to be more restrictive, other actions to prevent or decontaminate crops are to be taken for adequate public health protection.
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References

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TLDR
It is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied, and it seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting.
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TLDR
Results show that conversion of AFB1 to AFB2a-Arg is a potential strategy to detoxify contaminated foods.
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TLDR
The strategy of using food additives to protect farm animals from the toxin may also provide effective and economical new approaches to protecting human populations.
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TLDR
Studies with human hepatocytes indicate a major role for GST M1-1 in AFB1 conjugation and that the model chemoprotective agent oltipraz can act by both inducing GSTs and inhibiting P450s.
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that CYP2A13, an enzyme predominantly expressed in human respiratory tract, has a significant activity in metabolizing AFB1 to its carcinogenic/toxic AFB1‐8,9‐epoxide and AFM1‐ 8,9-epoxide at both low (15 μM) and high (150μM) substrate concentrations.
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TLDR
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TLDR
A series of studies is presented to show the complexities encountered with a single chemical, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and a role for epoxide hydrolase in alteration of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis has been proposed, although experimental evidence is lacking.
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TLDR
Results showed that the gamma-rays even at 15 kGy were not effective in the complete destruction of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in the testedFeed, indicating that the increasing stringent regulations for mycotoxins imposed by importing countries such as those of the European Union are not safe for human consumption.
Carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B1 among wheat handlers
TLDR
Wheat handlers exposed to Aspergillus flavus have a high risk of elevated serum AFB1/Alb levels and AFU, and there was a significant correlation between AFU and AFB1-Alb in bakers and between AFP and AF1/alb in HCC cases.
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