Affective space is bipolar.

@article{Russell1979AffectiveSI,
  title={Affective space is bipolar.},
  author={J. Russell},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  year={1979},
  volume={37},
  pages={345-356}
}
  • J. Russell
  • Published 1979
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Numerous previous studies found monopolar rather than bipolar dimensions of affect (defined as emotion represented in language), but may have included methodological biases against bipolarity. The present study of self-report data (N = 150) on 11 affect scales showed that response format and acquiescence response style significantly shifted correlations between hypothesized opposites away from showing bipolarity. When these biases were taken into account, pleasure was found to be the bipolar… Expand

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