Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized.

@article{KunstWilson1980AffectiveDO,
  title={Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized.},
  author={William Kunst‐Wilson and Robert B. Zajonc},
  journal={Science},
  year={1980},
  volume={207 4430},
  pages={
          557-8
        }
}
Animal and human subjects readily develop strong preferences for objects that have become familiar through repeated exposures. Experimental evidence is presented that these preferences can develop even when the exposures are so degraded that recognition is precluded. 

A New Perspective of Subliminal Perception

Abstract Studies investigating subliminal stimulation have generally held that such procedures are ineffective in an advertising context. This article provides a new outlook based on right brain

Recognition memory and the mere exposure effect.

  • J. BrooksM. Watkins
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1989
An attempt was made to replicate findings taken as evidence that liking is used as a basis for inferring prior exposure and thus for making recognition decisions, but this claim was not supported and statistical analyses suggested that if liking and recognition were causally related, recognition mediated liking rather than the other way around.

Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: II. Effect of delay between study and test

It is shown that the ability to select target stimuli by affect can occur undiminished over a delay of 1 week between study and test and can serve as the basis for stimulus discrimination in the absence of recognition at the time of test.

Affective and Cognitive Factors in Preferences

Affective factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of preferences. The representation of affect can take a variety of forms, including motor responses and somatic reactions.

The affective primacy hypothesis: Affective or cognitive processing of optimally and suboptimally presented primes?

Copyright 1996 Psychologica Belgica. Author version of the paper reproduced here with permission from the publisher.

Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: effects of shadowing, masking, and cerebral laterality

Results from contingency probability analyses and data from replicated and extended the finding that mere exposure to a briefly presented stimulus can increase positive affect through familiarity without enhancing the recognition of that stimulus indicate that affect and recognition judgments are different.

The Mere Exposure Effect Is Differentially Sensitive to Different Judgment Tasks

Results are inconsistent with general predictions made by the nonspecific activation hypothesis, but not the affective primacy or perceptual fluency hypotheses which were discussed in terms of cognitive neuroscience research.

Memory. When less is more.

Evidence from animal and human research for the forgetting of stimuli as a distinct memory principle is presented, and the methodological and conceptual implications of this pervasive type of memory loss are considered.

An Experimental Study of Semantic and Phonemic Information in Implicit and Explicit Memory in Relation to Prolonged Deprivation

T H B S I 9 SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF fioctor of $l|tloiKop^ IN PSYCHOLOGY

SOME OBSERVATIONS UPON PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION AND THE MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT

Summary.-The mere repetition of events tends to enhance subjective familiarity and subjective preference for those events. It has been shown that the enhancement of subjective preference is neither
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