Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized.

  title={Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized.},
  author={William Kunst‐Wilson and Robert B. Zajonc},
  volume={207 4430},
Animal and human subjects readily develop strong preferences for objects that have become familiar through repeated exposures. Experimental evidence is presented that these preferences can develop even when the exposures are so degraded that recognition is precluded. 

A New Perspective of Subliminal Perception

Abstract Studies investigating subliminal stimulation have generally held that such procedures are ineffective in an advertising context. This article provides a new outlook based on right brain

Recognition memory and the mere exposure effect.

  • J. BrooksM. Watkins
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1989
An attempt was made to replicate findings taken as evidence that liking is used as a basis for inferring prior exposure and thus for making recognition decisions, but this claim was not supported and statistical analyses suggested that if liking and recognition were causally related, recognition mediated liking rather than the other way around.

Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: II. Effect of delay between study and test

It is shown that the ability to select target stimuli by affect can occur undiminished over a delay of 1 week between study and test and can serve as the basis for stimulus discrimination in the absence of recognition at the time of test.

Affective and Cognitive Factors in Preferences

Affective factors play an important role in the development and maintenance of preferences. The representation of affect can take a variety of forms, including motor responses and somatic reactions.

Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: effects of shadowing, masking, and cerebral laterality

Results from contingency probability analyses and data from replicated and extended the finding that mere exposure to a briefly presented stimulus can increase positive affect through familiarity without enhancing the recognition of that stimulus indicate that affect and recognition judgments are different.

The Mere Exposure Effect Is Differentially Sensitive to Different Judgment Tasks

Results are inconsistent with general predictions made by the nonspecific activation hypothesis, but not the affective primacy or perceptual fluency hypotheses which were discussed in terms of cognitive neuroscience research.

Memory Enhances the Mere Exposure Effect

The fact of having already encountered something encourages future preference, a phenomenon known as the mere exposure effect (MEE). There is a widely accepted view that recognition inhibits the MEE.

Memory. When less is more.

Evidence from animal and human research for the forgetting of stimuli as a distinct memory principle is presented, and the methodological and conceptual implications of this pervasive type of memory loss are considered.

An Experimental Study of Semantic and Phonemic Information in Implicit and Explicit Memory in Relation to Prolonged Deprivation



Summary.-The mere repetition of events tends to enhance subjective familiarity and subjective preference for those events. It has been shown that the enhancement of subjective preference is neither



Perception of Letters in Words: Seek Not and Ye Shall Find

Subjects perceive a letter in a briefly presented word more accurately when they attend to the whole word than when they focus their attention on just the letter they want to see.

Visual Evoked Response Correlates of Unconscious Mental Processes

The results indicate that the effects of subliminal perception are encoded in the average evoked response and also influence the content of free associations.

Exposure frequency and stimulus preference.

Low meaning and short exposures were found to significantly enhance the frequency-affect relationship and different orientations to novel versus repetitive stimulation were clearly evident in the preference functions in Expts.

Is stimulus recognition a necessary condition for the occurrence of exposure effects?

The results suggest that the relationship between stimulus exposure and affect does not depend on the operation of higher order cognitive processes, at least to the extent that such processes are themselves dependent upon stimulus recognition.

Combining visual and verbal information in an impression-formation task.

Results supported theHYPOTHESIS that the 2 Subjectives were SIMPLY AVERAGED to get together, but there was a strong interaction between them and the photographer.

Depth of processing pictures of faces and recognition memory

These studies ask whether S remembers a picture better the greater the "depth of processing" he allots to it. Depth of processing pictures of faces was varied according to judgments of sex

Selective inattention to anxiety-linked stimuli.

The results indicated that both low perceivability and high solvability increase the likelihood of response delays specifically in the presence of anxiety-linked stimuli.

When face recognition fails.

Two studies investigated recognition of pictures of faces, focusing on the effects of changes in appearance of the face from presentation to test and type of processing or encoding. Experiment 1

Novelty, complexity, and hedonic value

Two experiments, in which Ss were exposed to sequences of colored shapes, investigated effects on ratings of “pleasingness” and “interestingness” of variables that had previously been shown to affect