Aetiology of hypospadias: a systematic review of genes and environment.

  title={Aetiology of hypospadias: a systematic review of genes and environment.},
  author={Loes F M van der Zanden and Iris A. L. M. van Rooij and Wout F. J. Feitz and Barbara Franke and Nine V. A. M. Knoers and Nel Roeleveld},
  journal={Human reproduction update},
  volume={18 3},
BACKGROUND Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. Most cases have an unknown aetiology, which is probably a mix of monogenic and multifactorial forms, implicating both genes and environmental factors. This review summarizes current knowledge about the aetiology of hypospadias. METHODS Pubmed was used to identify studies on hypospadias aetiology published between January 1995 and February 2011. Reference lists of the selected manuscripts were also… CONTINUE READING