Aerosols, Climate, and the Hydrological Cycle

  title={Aerosols, Climate, and the Hydrological Cycle},
  author={Veerabhadran Ramanathan and Paul J. Crutzen and Jeffrey T. Kiehl and Daniel Rosenfeld},
  pages={2119 - 2124}
Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere. These human-made aerosols enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation. They also produce brighter clouds that are less efficient at releasing precipitation. These in turn lead to large reductions in the amount of solar irradiance reaching Earth's surface, a corresponding increase in solar heating of the atmosphere, changes in the atmospheric temperature structure, suppression of rainfall, and less efficient… 
Aerosol intercations on clouds with emphasis on the arabian peninsula
Biomass burning and human activities are releasing large amounts of aerosols into the atmosphere. In addition, desert dust particles have increased substantially in the atmosphere over the past 30
Aerosol Impacts on Climate and Biogeochemistry
Aerosols are suspensions of solid and/or liquid particles in the atmosphere and modify atmospheric radiative fluxes and chemistry. Aerosols move mass from one part of the earth system to other parts
A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system
Increases in aerosol concentration and changes in their composition, driven by industrialization and an expanding population, may adversely affect the Earth's climate and water supply.
Aerosols and Their Impact on Radiation, Clouds, Precipitation, and Severe Weather Events
Aerosols (tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere) have been in the forefront of environmental and climate change sciences as the primary atmospheric pollutant and external force
Climate Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosol Forcing on Tropical Precipitation and Circulations
Aerosols are one of the key factors influencing the hydrological cycle and radiation balance of the climate system. Although most aerosols deposit near their sources, the induced cooling effect is
Impacts of absorbing aerosols on South Asian rainfall
Anthropogenic aerosols in the lower troposphere increase the absorption and scattering of solar radiation by air and clouds, causing a warmer atmosphere and a cooler surface. It is suspected that
Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?
A conceptual model is proposed that explains this apparent dichotomy of pristine tropical clouds with low CCN concentrations rain out too quickly to mature into long-lived clouds and heavily polluted clouds evaporate much of their water before precipitation can occur.
Global warming and the acceleration of the hydrological cycle.
The climate of Earth and its global-averaged surface air temperature are the consequence of a balance between the amount of solar radiation absorbed by Earth’s surface and atmosphere, and the amount
Natural aerosol–climate feedbacks suppressed by anthropogenic aerosol
The natural environment is an important source of atmospheric aerosol such as dust, sea spray, and wildfire smoke. Climate controls many of these natural aerosol sources, which, in turn, can alter
Atmospheric brown clouds: From local air pollution to climate change
Atmospheric brown clouds are atmospheric accumulations of carbonaceous aerosol particles spanning vast areas of the globe. They have recently gained much attention, from the scientific community and


Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric aerosols play important roles in climate and atmospheric chemistry: They scatter sunlight, provide condensation nuclei for cloud droplets, and participate in heterogeneous chemical
On Modification of Global Warming by Sulfate Aerosols
Abstract There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of
Large contribution of organic aerosols to cloud-condensation-nuclei concentrations
THE albedo and radiative properties of marine stratus clouds are determined largely by the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans. Modelling studies have suggested that
Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth's surface
An observational method is presented for quantifying aerosol forcing to within ±5 per cent at the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere over the tropical northern Indian Ocean to imply that tropical aerosols might slow down the hydrological cycle.
The effect of smoke particles on clouds and climate forcing
Smoke particles from biomass burning can generate forcing of climate by modifying cloud microphysics and reflectance of sunlight. Cloud modification, critical to an understanding of climate change,
Suppression of rain and snow by urban and industrial air pollution
  • Rosenfeld
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • 2000
Direct evidence demonstrates that urban and industrial air pollution can completely shut off precipitation from clouds that have temperatures at their tops of about -10 degrees C over large areas.
Pollution and the Planetary Albedo
Reshaping the Theory of Cloud Formation
Recent insights into cloud formation are discussed and results indicate that current estimates of both the magnitude and the uncertainty of indirect aerosol forcing may be too low.
Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Aerosols from Space: Past, Present, and Future.
Tropospheric aerosol particles originate from man-made sources such as urban/industrial activities, biomass burning associated with land use processes, wind-blown dust, and natural sources. Their
Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols
Global simulations of the composition of and direct forcing due to aerosols containing natural and/or anthropogenic sulfate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate, ammonium, sodium, calcium, magnesium,