Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird

@article{Warrick2005AerodynamicsOT,
  title={Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird},
  author={D. Warrick and B. Tobalske and Donald R Powers},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={435},
  pages={1094-1097}
}
Despite profound musculoskeletal differences, hummingbirds (Trochilidae) are widely thought to employ aerodynamic mechanisms similar to those used by insects. The kinematic symmetry of the hummingbird upstroke and downstroke has led to the assumption that these halves of the wingbeat cycle contribute equally to weight support during hovering, as exhibited by insects of similar size. This assumption has been applied, either explicitly or implicitly, in widely used aerodynamic models and in a… Expand
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