Field evaluation of the efficacy of proprietary repellent formulations with IR3535® and Picaridin against Aedes aegypti
Populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks) on Moorea Island, French Polynesia, the local vectors of dengue and filariasis, respectively, were sampled by landing/biting collection at nine localities on the east, north, and west coasts, during the late dry season, early and late wet season (September-May) 2003 and 2004, to investigate epidemiologically important features of the populations and compare them between regions and months. Biting rates of both species tended to increase (but not always significantly) for each species in each region each month from the late dry season to the late wet season, and the north coast region had significantly higher biting rates of Ae. aegypti. Insemination rates of Ae. polynesiensis females (94.5-98.8%) were consistently greater than those of Ae. aegypti (87.5-93.5%) throughout the study, but there was no significant difference in the insemination rates of either species between months and regions. Parity rates were generally highest in north coast samples and lowest in west coast samples for both species and generally increased (albeit not always significantly) by month for each species, with a range of 52.9-88.8% for Ae. polynesiensis and 28.6-53.6% for Ae. aegypti, although the high gravid rate (15.8-45.9%) of Ae. aegypti samples (reflecting its feeding more than once in a gonotrophic cycle) confounded both intraspecific and interspecific comparisons. Filarial infection was rare in Ae. aegypti, although both W. bancrofti and D. immitis were recorded, and infection rates in Ae. polynesiensis increased through the study period in each region for both filarias, with up to 4.6% infected and 1.4% infective for W. bancrofti and up to 6.3% infected and 2.5% infective for D. immitis. For W. bancrofti, infection rates were significantly lower on the west coast and also in the dry season, whereas rates for infective stages were significantly greater in the late wet season. For D. immitis there was no significant difference in infection rates between regions, but rates were significantly greater in the late wet season. Rainfall in all months sustains populations of both vectors and explains the relatively few significant differences between seasons; however, the wet season may provide for increased vector abundance and longevity, and present a potentially increased risk for transmission. Although the differences shown between regions also were limited in a statistical sense, there were increased risks for the northern and eastern regions, where both locals and tourists are concentrated and where the seaports and airport are located, and these areas should be priority targets for disease surveillance and vector control.