Adverse effects of cannabis and cannabinoids.

@article{Ashton1999AdverseEO,
  title={Adverse effects of cannabis and cannabinoids.},
  author={C. Heather Ashton},
  journal={British journal of anaesthesia},
  year={1999},
  volume={83 4},
  pages={
          637-49
        }
}
  • C. Ashton
  • Published 1 October 1999
  • Medicine
  • British journal of anaesthesia
The use of cannabis for both recreational and medicinal purposes dates back for thousands of years.15 91 It is perceived widely by recreational users as a harmless drug, a view fostered by some sections of the press and even (surprisingly) by a leading medical journal.73 The opinions of 74% of doctors in a British Medical Association survey92 and of a Select Committee of the House of Lords59 that cannabis should again be available on prescription (as it was until 1971) appear to support this… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Cannabis: A Toxin-Producing Plant with Potential Therapeutic Uses
TLDR
This review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of Cannabis sativa and cannabinoids, as well as the acute and chronic toxic effects of cannabis use on various body systems.
Adverse effects of cannabis.
  • D. Ashton
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Prescrire international
  • 2011
TLDR
On the basis of the available data, it seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses, although it cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis.
Cannabis or health
TLDR
Devising effective control policies is difficult, but perhaps greater efforts should be directed towards reducing prevalence and providing treatment for dependent users.
Cannabis-based medicines and the perioperative physician
TLDR
A summary of the pharmacology of cannabis-based medicines including anaesthetic interactions and implications is presented, to assist colleagues encountering these medicines in clinical practice.
Cannabis or health?
TLDR
Devising effective control policies is difficult, but perhaps greater efforts should be directed towards reducing prevalence and providing treatment for dependent users.
Spectrum of histopathological lesion in surgically removed appendix
The background to this debate about legitimising cannabis (also called marijuana)—from the plant Cannabis sativa for analgesic use is that the drug has been used both therapeutically and
Cannabis and Its Secondary Metabolites: Their Use as Therapeutic Drugs, Toxicological Aspects, and Analytical Determination
TLDR
This review comprehends the main secondary metabolites of Cannabis, approaching their therapeutic potential and applications, as well as their potential risks, in order to differentiate the consumption as recreational drugs.
Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: a systematic review
TLDR
Short-term use of existing medical cannabinoids appeared to increase the risk of nonserious adverse events, and high-quality trials of long-term exposure are required to further characterize safety issues related to the use of medical cannabinoids.
The emergence and analysis of synthetic cannabinoids.
TLDR
Background information in the style of a brief monograph is included, as an aid to rapidly understanding the pharmacological aspects of these compounds in the forensic context, and a comprehensive set of data is presented, obtained from analysis of purchased products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid Chromatography-tandem mass spectromaetry (LC-MS/MS).
The implications of the use of cannabidiol-related products in a safety-sensitive drug testing environment: A medical-legal perspective.
TLDR
Hemp- and CBD-containing products were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compliance was assessed for CBD and Δ9-THC purity against the legislative thresholds, and a strategy based on metabolite ratios is suggested to distinguish between intentional or irresponsible cannabis use and legitimate CBD use.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 155 REFERENCES
Biomedical benefits of cannabinoids?
TLDR
Clinical trials carried out with cannabinoids including Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and levonantradol are reviewed and present evidence suggests that they could be valuable, particularly as adjuvants, for symptom control in a range of conditions for which standard drugs are not fully satisfactory.
Cannabis use in the community.
TLDR
Few serious damaging effects from cannabis use itself were identified, although chest infections and anxiety problems were common, and more research into several identified areas is required.
Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans.
TLDR
The advent of highly potent analogs and a specific antagonist may make possible the development of compounds that lack undesirable side effects, thus limiting therapeutic usefulness of cannabinoid-derived drugs on the market today.
Health aspects of cannabis.
CLINICAL STUDIES OF CANNABIS TOLERANCE AND DEPENDENCE *
TLDR
After a comprehensive review of various aspects of cannabis tolerance and dependence, Wikler thinks the evidence indicates that botholerance and dependence can develop in man.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Non-Opiate Abused Drugs
TLDR
The clinical significance of kinetic characteristics with respect to abuse is discussed where possible and the pharmacokinetic properties that presumably contribute to self-administration and drug abuse include rapid delivery of the drug into the central nervous system and high free drug clearance.
Lung disease induced by drug addiction.
TLDR
Drug abuse refers to the non-medical "recreational" use of drugs, some ofwhich results in physical or psychological dependence, which represents by far the most common form of drug abuse.
Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids
TLDR
The cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids is reported that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen, which helps clarify the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids.
...
...