Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding

@article{Hoetzenecker2015AdverseCD,
  title={Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions: current understanding},
  author={Wolfram Hoetzenecker and Mirjam N{\"a}geli and E. T. Mehra and Annette Nygaard Jensen and Ieva Saulīte and Peter Schmid‐Grendelmeier and Emmanuella Guenova and Antonio Cozzio and Lars Einar French},
  journal={Seminars in Immunopathology},
  year={2015},
  volume={38},
  pages={75-86}
}
Adverse cutaneous drug reactions are recognized as being major health problems worldwide causing considerable costs for health care systems. Most adverse cutaneous drug reactions follow a benign course; however, up to 2 % of all adverse cutaneous drug eruptions are severe and life-threatening. These include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN… 
Approach to Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions
TLDR
Cutaneous tests and in vitro tests can be useful for confirmation of drug causality and investigation of possible cross-reactivity in SCARs, which are rare diseases given the incidence is extremely low.
Mechanisms of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: Recent Advances
TLDR
Intensive research in recent years has led to major progress in understanding of the contribution of certain cell types and soluble mediators to the variability of SCAR phenotypes.
Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in Pediatric Patients: A Multicenter Study.
TLDR
The clinical characteristics of patients with the diagnosis of SCARs, which include drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis are evaluated.
Pharmacogenetic Testing for Prevention of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions
TLDR
The current knowledge in the field of pharmacogenomics of drug hypersensitivities or SCAR, and its implementation in the clinical practice is updated.
Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: The Pharmacogenomics from Research to Clinical Implementation
TLDR
Recent cutting-edge findings concerning the discovery of biomarkers for SCARs and their clinical utilities in the better prediction and early diagnosis of this disease are discussed.
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms: An Update and Review of Recent Literature
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, is also known as drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome and by various other names. It is now recognised as one of the severe
Cutaneous allergic drug reactions: update on pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures and differential diagnosic
TLDR
Similar mutations in the IL36R gene make the differential diagnosis more difficult and raise the question whether there is a difference between these diseases or whether AGEP is not just a drug induced pustular psoriasis, and some special aspects of side effects of biologics and targeted therapies respectively are discussed.
Drug eruptions with novel targeted therapies – immune checkpoint and EGFR inhibitors
  • I. Pospischil, W. Hoetzenecker
  • Medicine
    Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • 2021
Given the increasing use of novel targeted therapies, dermatologists are constantly confronted with novel cutaneous side effects of these agents. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate management of these
Genotyping HLA alleles to predict the development of Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs): state-of-the-art
TLDR
This review intended to summarize the significant HLA alleles associated with SCARs induced by different drugs in different populations and the cost-effectiveness of screening tests.
Dermoscopic Aspects of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions.
TLDR
Dermoscopy improves clinical recognition of SCARDs and identifies those associated with severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs (SCARDs) related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 122 REFERENCES
Drug eruptions: approaching the diagnosis of drug-induced skin diseases.
TLDR
This review will describe and illustrate a thoughtful, comprehensive, and clinical approach to the diagnosis and management of adverse cutaneous drug reactions.
Adverse Cutaneous Drug Eruptions
TLDR
This book, a selected group of experts provide an up-to-date, condensed and clinically relevant overview of the field of cutaneous drug eruptions, ranging from epidemiology and genetic predisposition to available therapeutic measures, including rapid drug desensitization.
DRESS syndrome.
TLDR
New insights into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms indicate a role for immunogenetic susceptibility factors and for reactivation of human herpes viruses, chiefly HHV-6.
Diagnosis and treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis with ocular complications.
TLDR
Acute conjunctivitis occurring before or simultaneously with skin eruptions accompanied by extremely high fever and oral and nail involvement indicate the initiation of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or TEN.
Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS): A Multiorgan Antiviral T Cell Response
TLDR
The authors propose that DRESS is caused by an EBV (or other similar virus)–driven selection of CD8+ T lymphocytes, which in turn inappropriately attack multiple organs, and think that the culprit drugs may trigger activation of the patients’ dormant EBV by an as yet undefined mechanism, possibly directly.
Fixed drug eruption: pathogenesis and diagnostic tests
  • T. Shiohara
  • Medicine
    Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology
  • 2009
TLDR
How the presence of intraepidermal CD8+ T cells resident in the fixed drug eruption lesions can provide exciting new clues to the authors' understanding of pathomechanisms of inflammatory skin diseases is focused on.
Incidence and risk factors for cutaneous adverse drug reactions in an intensive care unit.
TLDR
Intensive care unit patients are particularly at risk for developing an adverse cutaneous drug reaction, and female gender, obesity, age over 60 and immune dysregulation areparticularly at risk.
The DRESS syndrome: a literature review.
TLDR
Culprit drug withdrawal and corticosteroids constituted the mainstay of DRESS treatment, and the outcome was death in 9 cases, but no predictive factors for serious cases were found.
Risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis during first weeks of antiepileptic therapy: a case-control study. Study Group of the International Case Control Study on Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.
TLDR
SJS and TEN are associated with short-term therapy with phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, and the association with valproic acid seems to be confounded by concomitant short- term therapy with other causal drugs.
Uncomplicated Drug-Induced Disseminated
Exanthematous reactions with various morphological and localization patterns are the most frequently encountered adverse drug reactions involving the skin. The time course of benign exanthemas
...
1
2
3
4
5
...