The present study examined the effects of high-concentration ascorbic acid (AsA) supplementation over a long period on growth, plasma components, nonspecific immune responses, and thermal tolerance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four commercial diets supplemented with 0, 100, 1000, and 5000 mg AsA per kg of diet (designated AsA0, AsA100, AsA1000, and AsA5000, respectively) were fed to rainbow trout (initial weight 1.85 g) for 100 days. AsA contents in liver increased with increasing dietary AsA levels. Feeding period, growth performance, and plasma components did not differ significantly between the AsA groups. On the other hand, the phagocytic assay [nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay] was significantly higher in fish fed AsA1000 and AsA5000 than those fed a diet without AsA (AsA0) at the end of feeding trial. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the intestines of fish fed AsA5000 was also significantly higher than that of fish fed AsA0. In the thermal tolerance test, fish fed AsA5000 only showed significantly lower cumulative mortality compared with the AsA0 group. In conclusion, high-concentration AsA supplementation such as AsA5000 over a long period does not induce any adverse effects and can enhance disease and stress resistance in rainbow trout.