Adverse Effects of Retinoids

  title={Adverse Effects of Retinoids},
  author={Michael David and Emmilia Hodak and Nick J. Lowe},
  journal={Medical Toxicology and Adverse Drug Experience},
SummaryOral retinoids, synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, have been used in the treatment of various dermatoses over the last decade. The most useful drugs have been isotretinoin (13- cisretinoic acid) for nodulocystic acne and etretinate for psoriasis vulgaris. Retinoids are also effective in the treatment of papulosquamous dermatoses other than psoriasis (i.e. inherited disorders of keratinisation), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and in chemotherapy and chemoprevention of cancer. However… 

A new generation of retinoid drugs for the treatment of dermatological diseases

There is considerable interest in developing novel retinoids that exhibit improvements in the side-effect profile, particularly for diseases that require chronic administration.

Section Review: Retinoids: Biological Function and Use in the Treatment of Dermatological Diseases: Pulmonary-Allergy, Dermatological, Gastrointestinal & Arthritis

A new generation of retinoids and retinoid treatments which are in clinical development and which exhibi...

Neuromuscular Adverse Effects Associated with Systemic Retinoid Dermatotherapy

Systemic diseases with involvement of nervous and/or muscle tissue and neuromuscular disorders should be regarded as exclusion criteria for initiation of oral retinoid therapy and intense physical exercise and concurrent treatment with neurotoxic or myotoxic drugs should be avoided during treatment with Oral retinoids.

Adverse Reactions to Oral Retinoids

SummaryRetinoids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, are analogues of vitamin A. They represent a major advance in the treatment of acne and psoriasis, as well as rarer conditions such as the

Cutaneous Reactions to Retinoids

Since their introduction in the 1980s, retinoids have been increasingly used for both the topical and systemic treatment of many disorders including, but not limited, to hyper- and parakeratotic

A review of acitretin, a systemic retinoid for the treatment of psoriasis

Acitretin is a second-generation, systemic retinoid that has been approved for the treatment of psoriasis since 1997 and is generally safe for long-term use and has no time limit restrictions, which makes it useful in combination therapy and for maintenance therapy.

Systemic retinoids in chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer

The pharmacokinetics and dose regimens of the two most commonly used oral retinoids (isotretinoin and acitretin) in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancers are presented and are associated with adverse effects, which are discussed in detail.

Retinoids Delivery Systems in Cancer: Liposomal Fenretinide for Neuroectodermal-Derived Tumors

The use and the therapeutic results obtained by using fenretinide-loaded liposomes against neuroectodermal-derived tumors, such as melanoma, in adults, and neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood, will be discussed.

Comparative Tolerability of Systemic Treatments for Plaque-Type Psoriasis

The potential adverse effects with these US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments in adults are examined, with specific emphasis on the controversies that surround long-term therapy with these agents and their cumulative adverse effects.



Visual and cutaneous toxicity which occurs during N‐(4‐hydroxyphenyl) retinamide therapy for psoriasis

The experience of unusual side‐effects which occur during a phase II clinical trial of (N‐[4‐Hydroxyphenyl] retinamide)(4HPR) in the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis is reported.

Oral Synthetic Retinoid Treatment in Children

In this report 15 patients with chronic disorders of keratinization and one patient with severe cystic acne were treated with oral isotretinoin and the degree of clinical response and duration of post-treatment remission varied with the different disorders.

Toxic effects of the aromatic retinoid etretinate.

The aromatic retinoid etretinate was administered to a series of 59 patients, 34 of which had psoriasis and 25 of whom had nonpsoriatic disease, finding no abnormalities in the peripheral blood cell counts or blood glucose, serum creatinine, serum nonprotein, and nitrogen levels.

Oral isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) therapy in severe acne: drug and vitamin A concentrations in serum and skin.

The results suggest that isotretinoin therapy interferes with the endogenous vitamin A metabolism in the skin.

Retinoids: a review.

  • C. Dicken
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 1984

Ophthalmological effects of 13‐cis‐retinoic acid therapy for acne vulgaris

The lack of gross changes in the presence of a 70% reduction in sebum excretion rate suggests that the drug is not grossly affecting tear secretion or its lipid component, and this infection is not a secondary effect due to a marked reduction in tear secretion.

Pharmacology of 13-cis-retinoic acid in humans.

Although there was a linear correlation of plasma concentration with dose escalation, large inter-individual variations in peak plasma concentrations were noted, and the drug was metabolized extensively to a metabolite, the concentrations of which exceeding parent 13-cis-retinoic acid concentrations with chronic dosing.

Etretinate and Isotretinoin, Two Retinoids with Different Pharmacokinetic Profiles

The development of vitamin A analogue compounds for use as therapeutic agents was mainly governed by the challenge to dissociate pharmacological effects from toxic side-effects, known as the

General clinical toxicology of oral retinoids.