Adverse Effects of Opioids on the Central Nervous Systems of Palliative Care Patients

  title={Adverse Effects of Opioids on the Central Nervous Systems of Palliative Care Patients},
  author={Jane W.A. Vella-Brincat and A D Sandy Macleod},
  journal={Journal of Pain \& Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy},
  pages={15 - 25}
Opioids, defined as drugs that stimulate opioid receptors, are primarily used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. They induce central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects which can be divided into three groups. The first group includes effects that lower the level of consciousness-sedation, drowsiness and sleep disturbance. The second group affects the thinking process and the ability to reactcognitive impairment, psychomotor impairment, delirium, hallucinations, dreams and nightmares… 
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